Short History of the Presbyterian Church
in Ireland

Prof. John M. Barkley
M.A., Ph.D, D.D.,F. R. Hist.S.


We discussed, in chapter v, the social and congregational life of the people in connection with the election of the Session, Public Worship, the Word and Sacraments, and the administration of Ordinances. In this chapter, let us continue this study dealing with questions such as Catechising, Education, Charitable and Social services, and Discipline.

As the practice of Catechising has disappeared a few remarks may be made concerning it first. This was a common feature of Church life up to the middle of the nineteenth century, but it gradually disappeared after the 1859 Revival.1.

At the Presbyterial Visitation of congregations the Session were asked: "Does he (the minister) hold public diets for catechising all the people of his charge ?" This question is given in the 1841, 1859, and 1868 Codes. This simply continued earlier practice, for the Synod of Ulster, in 1720, enacted, "This Synod appoints the ministers who are members of this Synod to preach Catechetick Doctrine ; insisting on the great and fundamental truths of Christianity, according to the Westminster Confession of Faith, and catechisms founded on the Holy Scriptures".2. That Secession custom was the same is evident from the minutes of the Visitation of the Monaghan Presbytery at Derryfubble (Eglish) on 1st August, 1781. In public catechising, the minister called at one house, or often a schoolhouse, to which all the families in the district came along for catechising. These meetings were opened and closed with prayer, and during them the minister expounded the Westminster Larger and Shorter Catechisms and examined both young and old on their religious knowledge. The reasons for the disappearance of Catechising is twofold�(a) the growth of the Sunday School movement, and (b) the new situation created by American revivalist movements.3.

Each elder on a Session was appointed a district or "quarter" for the oversight of which he was reponsible, and on which he had to report periodically to the Court.

The whole life of the community came under the scrutiny of the Session, as may be seen in the variety of cases dealt with, and the questions used by elders when visiting their quarters. In Cahans the questions were :-

  1. Had you family worship in all its parts here last night and this morning?"

  2. Do all members of the family decently attend worship without sleeping or trifling behaviour ?"
  3. Do you every Saturday night cause turf, water, wash potatoes and kail or greens be got into the house sufficient to serve till Monday morning?"
  4. Is your house swept every Saturday night and the ashes removed so that the family goes to rest before it be too late ?"
  5. Did you Catechise your family here last Sabbath night observing to do it every Sabbath night ?"
  6. Do you daily cause each of your family observe secret prayer ?"
  7. Do you ever take the children aside and cause them to pray in your hearing secretly ?"
  8. Do you carefully restrain your family from idle Jesting, Taunting and giving bye-names or quarrelling with one another ?"
  9. Do you restrain them from gross or minced oaths, and telling any sort of lies in their common discourse ?"
  10. Do you watch that the children play no games on the Sabbath day?"
  11. Do any of your family use tossing and dice-ing men and women themselves or with others for diversion ?"
  12. Do they use any Charms on certain days as Novr. 1st, or encourage spae-men and the like by consulting and giving heed to them ?"
  13. Do they go to any Cock-fights, horse-races, or dancings ?"
  14. Do they attend bonfires on Mid-Summer Eve ?"
  15. What share of the Larger and Shorter Catechisms or of the Holy Scriptures have they got by heart ?"
  16. Do they attend the public Ordinances duly and decently ?"

Cahans was a Secession congregation, and while the Seceders were more rigid than the Synod of Ulster this form of visitation was common to both. Each elder is still responsible for the visitation of a "district", but, while recognising the sincerity of those of former days, we can rejoice that the puritanical and judicial form of "elder's visit" has disappeared and that this function of the elder's office is permeated with a new and more Christian spirit.

Great care was exercised, and every precaution was taken, to ensure that those liable for censure did not escape, for example, in 1694, Templepatrick Session started a search of Co. Down to find Joan Henderson, in 1700 Larne and Kilwaughter Session wrote to Rev. Humphrey Thompson of Ballybay to trace Agness McLune, and, in 1707, in Connor it was intimated that four people had fled Church censure in Scotland and were not to be harboured should they come to that district. Further, one finds cases of censure so long as nine years after the offence. Church discipline was a serious matter.

Kirk-Sessions were responsible for the organisation of missionary societies and Sunday schools, for the provision of Bibles for the people and libraries, and for providing homes for widows and orphans.

They, also, took a great interest in education, and in connection with most churches a school was built. The fullest account of this sphere of activity is in the First Belfast and Abbey records in connection with the Charity School. The schools were run and supervised by the Session.

The following extracts from the minutes of Session in Abbey provide a picture of this.

7 September, 1753: "The Charge of the Charity School has been given to Mr. Beckett and 'tis ordered that Mr. Gamble pay him �7. 10s. Od. in advance: Resolve that Col. Martin and Mr. Gamble visit the School till the 1st of December next, and make a report to the Session".

7 June, 1754: "Resolve that the fee that's usually given with a Charity boy when he is about to be put out apprentice, be given to John Cummin with his son, whom he is about to take apprentice to himself".

7 December, 1754: "Resolve that as two pairs of shoes in the year are found insufficient for the boys in the Charity School they shall be allowed this time forward three pairs in the year".

3 December, 1756: "Resolve that 25 copies of Mair's Exposition of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism in the hands of Mr. Macelraith be given to the Charity boys for Christmas.

"Resolve that Mr. Laing, Mr. Ross and Mr. Macelraith visit the Charity School as often as convenient for half a year, and in the time, distribute 10/- among the boys according to their deserving".

6 May, 1757: "Resolve that a list of the Charity boys with an account of their attendance and non-attendance be given to us every Session, and that the Inspectors of the School be empowered to authorise the matter to discharge such as will not attend, and to take others in their place". The problem of non-attendance arises frequently, and sometimes leads to dismissal of the offender.

3 February, 1759: "Ordered that no boy educated in the Charity School be put out apprentice without the concurrence of the Session at their usual meeting".

7 September, 1759: "Resolved that Patterson's son have forty shillings given to him to be put out to an apprenticeship. But as he was a bad attender this is not meant as a precedent but done out of compassion to the poor parents' circumstances".

6 May. 1770: "Ordered that half a Guinea he given to john Beckett, jun., for cutting and dressing the boys' hair previous to the Charity sermon".

29 April, 1771: "Resolve that in consequence of the gross misconduct of the Schoolmaster, John Beckett, that another be sought for and an advertisement for that purpose be immediately inserted in the public papers".

13 May, 1771: "William White having offered himself as a candidate for schoolmaster and Clerk in the room of John Beckett was duly examined by the Session.

"Resolved that the said Will. White be and is hereby unanimously appointed schoolmaster and Clerk in the room of John Beckett and to commence on Monday the third of June next, at the usual salary". White was not a success, and he was followed, later in the same year, by James Evans who held the position for twenty years.

16 July, 1772: "Resolved that the schoolmaster be restricted to the following times and days in giving the School vacations, viz :

From Good Friday Eve to the Wednesday following,
Whitsun�Monday and Tuesday,
King's Birthday June 4th,
1st of July and August,
4th and 5th of November,
And from the 24th of December to the 7th of January following".

20 March, 1792: "Resolved that Mr. Jackson have orders to make three cast metal beds for the use of the boys and that Dr. McDowell be requested to purchase bedding for them".

4 May, 1792: "The boys shall rise at six o'clock in the morning and go to rest at ten o'clock at night, in summer.

"The boys shall rise at seven in the morning and go to rest at nine at night, in winter.
"They shall breakfast at eight o'clock, dine at two o'clock, and sup at seven o'clock in summer.
"They shall breakfast at nine o'clock, dine at three, and sup at eight in winter.
"From the first of April to the first of October the boys shall enter school at nine in the morning, and quit at one o'clock, enter again at three and quit at six.
"From the first of October to first of April they shall enter school at ten in the morning and quit at three in the afternoon".

The book also gives details concerning expenses, salaries, and diet, but insufficient has been said to show how the Session ran a school, and their interest in the task of education and the welfare of the pupils.

Not only did the Session appoint the teachers, they also kept a strict watch on a teacher's orthodoxy, as, for example, in Aghadowey on 15 January, 1706: "This Session understanding that one Samuel m'Culloch keeps a school in Caheny and maintains heretical doctrines, which is of dangerous consequences for fear of seducing the simple and ignorant, do enjoin Tho. Nickel to desire the people of Caheny to cause him to remove out of that town, and declare that it is the mind of this Session that he be not entertained in any family within the bounds of this congregation". Thomas Nickel reported that he had done so at the next meeting of Session.

Sessions also made considerable grants to the children of the poor to assist in their education.

With the development of the system of National Education the Session's responsibility concerning education has altered in its approach in that they now must face the issues by encouraging its advancement through state legislation.

The Session were responsible for the maintenance of the Meetinghouse, and for overseeing the "seats". At the same time members had a sort of "tenant-right" to their pews ; and the ownership of a pew, like that of a farm, was often disposed of by sale. Many incidents occurred in this connection, and there is a tradition, probably apocryphal, of it being possible to enter a Meetinghouse and find a notice "For Sale" fixed to a pew. As an illustration of the type of problem presented to a Session in this aspect of their oversight that on 11 May, 1703, in Aghadowey, may be quoted : "Mrs. Boyd being cited before this Session upon the account of Breaking up of our Meetinghouse and fencing in her seat and deserting our Assembly and conforming with the Established Church for a time, and when some members of Session visited her utterly refused and told that when, the Session and congregation acknowledged an offence done to her she would then acknowledge her offence but would not appear before this Session upon this account. This Session judges her guilty of a disorderly carriage and is very offensive and that she is not to be admitted to Church privileges until she remove these offences".

The Session was responsible for the investment of monies received by way of bequest or donation, and for the appointment of trustees for investments and property. They, also, gave loans to be repaid at interest. All collections were the responsibility of the Session. The collections, for special objects, the poor, the maintenance of the congregation, etc., were taken "at the kirk doores", "at the barn", at the "kirk-yard gate", or during Public Worship in different districts and at different times.

These collections, it must be remembered, had nothing to

do with the minister's stipends. Stipends were paid by bonds, The type of "bond" may be seen from that in the Minute Book of First Ballybay :�"We whose names are underwritten, members of the Presbyterian congregation of Ballibay, do promise to pay to the collectors for the time being, the several sums annexed to our names, for the support of said congregation, in four equal shares, or quarterly payments, the first payment to be made on the first day of August next, and on the fast day of every succeeding quarter as long as we remain members of said congregation�Given under our hands 24th day of May, 1818 . . ." Then follows the list of members and the amounts promised by each.

If the bonds were not honoured, as First Carrickfergus Committee Minute Book shows,4. legal proceedings might be instituted ; and, as Aghadowey and First Ray Session Books show, might result in suspension from Christian privileges. In such cases, it has to be remembered that the fault is not non-payment, but breach of "bond" or "promise".

The Larne and Kilwaughter, Drumbo, and Aghadowey records show that Sessions were responsible for the tilling and harvesting of the minister's farm. This was generally done by dividing the congregation into districts, each of which was responsible for a certain part of the work. In Larne the Session supplied a horse for the minister.

Sessions were responsible for the ground-rent of property, and for seeing that all leases were in order. They appointed the bedal, looked after the repairs to Church property, kept the stool of repentance repaired, and so on.

Originally, all temporal affairs were in the hands of the Session, but at the beginning of the nineteenth century committees of management to look after the temporal affairs of the congregation came into being in many districts. The appointment of these committees was a matter for the Session, with the approval of the congregation; and the 1825 Code states that "the temporal affairs of the congregation should be under the care of a committee, of such number as the congregation may think fit"; and that "the committee shall be chosen by the contributors to the stipend".5. Such committees, during the nineteenth century, took over the Session's financial duties.

Congregational meetings, or as they are generally described meetings of "the Heads of Families", were under the control of the Kirk-Session, who decided what business would be brought before such meetings.

The Presbyterian Church inherited responsibility for the care of the poor and needy, and valiantly tried to fulfil this duty. The members of the Kirk Session with their intimate knowledge of the parishioners 'and their circumstances and characters, were both just and merciful. While the amounts awarded to widows and orphans, aged and infirm, etc.., seem to us scanty, it must be remembered that the standard of living was much lower than today, and that the contributions were in most places adequate. In this connection there was always the hardened beggar, but genuine cases were protected by a certificate from their local Session.

The Minute Books contain many references to distribution to the poor and needy. The following synopsis is taken from the Templepatrick contributions from 1688-1699:

"Widow" (13 February, 1688/89) ; "ordered to John Duncan for Will McClelland's coffin" (9 June, 1689) ; "widows Mickle, Thomson, Mcllwrath" (22 October, 1689) ; "a soldier of Derry" (27 October, 1689) ; "a woman in distress with small children" (10 November, 1689) ; "a poor object" (24 February, 1688/89; 15 December, 1689; 8 June, 1690) ; "Hugh Brown's orphan" (8 December, 1689; 12 March, 1689/90) ; "a Dutch woman" (8 December, 1689) ; "an orphan" (5 January, 1689/90) ; "orphan Effie (or Essie) Morison" (12 March, 1689/90) ; "a stranger" (20 April, 1690; 17 April, 1692; 15 July, 1694; 25 August, 1694) ; "widow Graham her child's schooling" (11 February, 1690/91) ; "an old man" (3 July, 1691) ; "a poor woman that brought forth a child at Wm. Gray's, a poor woman to help to pay for a child's clothing" (27 December, 1691) ; "Janot Ramsey her sheet" (5 June, 1692; there are many such references) ; "relief of persons taken with the Turks" (31 July, 1692 ; 25 February, 1692/93) . "a soft headed boy" (4 December, 1692) ; "a sea man" (8 January, 1693/94) ; "the two Thomson's schooling" (2 July, 1693) ; "to buy a book for a poor child" (3 December, 1693) ; "a lame Drummer" (10 December, 1693) ; "Tho Turner's funeral" (18 March, 1693/94) ; "a poor body's burial" (21 March, 1696/97; 26 February, 1698/99; several of these entries) ; "a blind man" (2 May, 1697) ; "a sheet to bury a poor body" (11 June, 1699) ; and the last entry is "a poor body 1d. 15 Jly., '99".

A further illustration may be given from Kirkdonald, 1678-1714 :�"a poor boy deformed in his feet" (July, 1679) ; "for the men taken captive by the Turks"; "Mr. Knillid's (?) wife's funeral" (3rd Sabbath of September, 1679) ; "Margaret Maxwell a poor woman" (March, 1679/80�her name appears frequently) ; "given to an honest distressed man which came out of Scotland" (1st Sabbath April, 1680) ; "given to a poor man who just had all his goods burnt" (2nd Sabbath April, 1680) ; "given to one Robert Anderson, Ballyrussell, who has suffered the loss of his goods for the truth", "given to a poor widow" (December, 1681) ; "to a widow woman . . . to a widow woman . . . to a poor man" (January, 1681/82) ; "to a poor widow woman" (September, 1683) ; "given to a blind woman living in Belfast" (25 August, 1684) ; "given to a stranger" (8 August, 1697) ; "to a poor scholar" (11 October, 1698) ; "for the burying of a poor woman" (September (?), 1699) ; "given to John Thomson for good (progress) in his learning" (16 , 1703) ; "given to Thomas Martin a blind man by order" (4 April, 1705) ; "for a child that was found until it got a home" (14 March, 1708) ; "to widow McElwaiene" (March, 1707/08) ; "to a poor lame man" (23 May, 1708) ; "given to John fox one shilling to help the burying of his little daughter" (25 July, 1708) ; "given out by order to take up Thomas Armstrong's bond to John Hamilton five shillings and two pence half penny" (10 December, 1709) ; "More for the French Meetinghouse in Dubline �2-0-10 which makes in all �10 also 4/- and three pence halfpenny for .............. is one shilling for Clerk's fees at the Synod of Belfast which is to meet the morrow. Sent by Thomas Armstrong" (31 December, 1711) ; "given to Mr. Stuart the sum of eight shillings and 9 pence laid out by him on public accounts last year" (20 January, 1712/13).

Sessions as well as caring for the orphan strove, so far as lay in their power, to see that the "illegitimate" were supported, for example, Carnmoney minute on 10 February, 1708:�"Mary Gibson appeared before us this day, seems afflicted for her sin to appear at next Session. She avers that Roger MacGill is the father of her child, he being a Papist we can do nothing with him but see to have him apprehended where he may be found that he may give security for the maintenance of the child if it live".

The Session saw to the burial of the poor, and supplied mort-cloths, for the use of which a fee was charged; and the income derived from this source went to supplement the collections for the poor.

Kirk-Sessions gave certificates, or testimonials, to members, who moved from one congregation to another. These were given in accordance with ecclesiastical discipline, and had to be produced before the person was admitted to Christian privileges:5. They were in the form of personal histories, sometimes dated from "infancy", to show whether, or not, the person was free from discipline. The following illustration is taken from Carnmoney Session records : "That Agnes Houston lived in this congregation from her infancy until March last free of all known scandal or Church censure is certified at Ballyclare, October 5th, 1720. Tho. Wilson. Memoranda that she was orderly married to Andrew McCormick of Carnmoney before she left this place".

Another is that from Dundonald to Carnmoney : "Dundonald. Aprile 8th, 1725: That David Cook and Margaret George his wife were orderly persons while with us and were admitted to Christian Communion. And when they left us which was at May last were free of scandal and Church censure. All which are certified by me. Jas. Stuart".

An incident on 11 June, 1706, in Aghadowey illustrates the care exercised in this connection :"Mary Gilchrist wife of Wm. Woods appeared at this Session producing a letter from her husband who has been Clerk and precentor in this congregation giving an account that he is forced to leave the place for fear of being cast into prison by his creditors and desiring a certificate from this Session of his behaviour since his settlement amongst us. The Session put to the vote grant him a certificate or not, and it was carried by the plurality grant him a testimonial. It was again carried by the plurality that for the safety of the Session and other prudential considerations the case of his fleeing from his creditors should he put in the bosom of his certificate".

The certification that members removing from one congregation to another are of good character and "members in full communion" is still the responsibility of the Session.

A great part of the Session's time was given to cases of Discipline. Today some people are repelled by its crudeness, but we must remember the conditions of the time. The law of the Church was much more Christian and humane than that of the State, which employed "branding", "torture", "burning alive", "thumbscrews", and "drowning" for what we today would call "minor" offences.

Popular conception is that the discipline dealt only with cases of "adultery" and "fornication", and, while there are many such, they are by no means the only faults with which Sessions dealt. The following list proves this�a man might not beat his wife on the Sabbath (although it is not clear whether he might not do so on other days), drunkenness is condemned, so is selling drink until people are drunk, people might not start to circulate scandal, a boy was not to be beaten on the Sabbath, nor might one on that day draw his sword to strike, people should not keep unseasonable hours, or arrange for harvesters, or cart or stack corn, or thatch his house on the Sabbath. People are censured for theft, giving light weight, "doing" a neighbour in a bargain, using herbs to procure miscarriage, rape, libel, for taking a neighbour's land from landlord, misbehaviour at wakes, playing cards and dice, perjury, paying for a soul in Purgatory, charming, etc. Cases occur also of witchcraft and exorcism of haunted houses. Sessions scrutinised the whole life of the people, and strove to keep a high moral standard in the community.

The legal procedure followed was that of the Scottish "Form of Process (1707)", which is the basis of the practice and procedure in the Irish Codes. Members might appear before the Session voluntarily, or by summons. A complaint was laid before the Session by a bill, with which a fee was deposited.

A person accused could clear himself, or herself, by Oath ; and the greatest care was taken that there should be no perjury, for if there was any doubt in the Session's mind the accused was not permitted to take an Oath of Expurgation. If the accused flatly denied the charge, the accuser and the accused were confronted.

In some districts parties were summoned to appear by the elder of the district, and in others, for example, Carnmoney and Dawson's Bridge, this was part of the bedal's duties.7. Witnesses, in the event of a trial, were summoned by the elder of their district, or by the bedal; and refusal to give evidence could result in suspension from Church privileges, as it was a failure in social responsibility.

The Session did not proceed to trial unless all parties were present, except stubbornness could be proved. After hearing the evidence, all parties were dismissed while the Session considered and brought in their finding, which was then read to all the parties.

Where the Session were not satisfied that the guilty had a sufficient sense of sin, he, or she, was referred to the minister, or the elder of the district, for instruction.

The guilty were rebuked and exhorted to repentance in less serious cases in the Session. In the more serious they had to stand "leigh forgans the pulpit", or confess publicly, for one or more Sabbaths, on the stool of repentance. Public confession and exhortation to repentance took place "after sermon" as in Scotland.

The aim of discipline was repentance and absolution, and excommunication was only pronounced as a last resort. Difficult cases were referred to the Presbytery, who adjudicated and referred the case back to the Session for censure.

In the exercise of discipline there was a strict recognition of each elder's bounds within the Session, and also of congregational boundaries. The bounds of each elder and of each congregation were not to be infringed.8.

While the discipline of the Church was strictly enforced, the records do testify to a real honesty and humanity. The impression left on the reader is always that of men who are striving as best they know how for the redemption of the sinner.

An example of the honesty of Kirk-Sessions is seen in the case from the Templepatrick minutes commencing 12 January, 1696, in which John McConnel brought an accusation against Margaret Cosh, Eliz. Crawford, and Jo. Blair. The hearing continues for a year and a half and the evidence is lurid and detailed. However, it ends with the establishment of the falsity of the accusation, and of the informer's guilt. So the Session put the accuser on trial, and on 16 May, 1697, declared that "Jo. McConnel stood and was absolved as to what concerns us".

As an example of the Session's patience and humanity may be cited the case commencing in Carnmoney on 18 August, 1703 :�"Agnes Chapman who sometime ago went to the County of Derry where she brought forth a child (as she says) to Walter Purdy of this parish, she came hither with her child desiring the benefit of baptism after satisfaction given for her offence to God and this congregation, she being called solemnly professed that she never knew man but said Walter Purdy. She was appointed to attend the Session next Lord's day, before which time Mr. Crawford was desired to speak to said Purdy and deal with him if he will take with guilt".

This begins one of the most interesting and tragic cases in the annals of Carnmoney. Agnes appeared before both Session and Presbytery, and on 11 September, 1703, the Session records, "Agnes Chapman did stand publicly and went to the Presbytery sitting at Killead where she was rebuked, exhorted and remitted to this Session, she before Session, congregation, and Presbytery adhered to what she before said that Walter Purdy is father of the child, her child was baptised and a Testimonial appointed to be given to her which was accordingly done".

Walter Purdy, on the other hand, defied Session and Presbytery for years. The following entries tell the story:-14 June, 1706, "Walter Purdy did not appear at the Presbytery. The Presbytery considering his obstinacy not only against the Session but the Presbytery appointed Mr. Crawford (Purdy having previous advertisement of this appointment in order to his being alarmed by the dreadful sentence to be denounced against him) when nothing else will do to declare him from the pulpit to be none of our communion seeing by his practice he had declared himself to be none of ours".

7 September, 1706, "Walter Purdy does not appear we agree to try him a little further and that prayer be put up to God by this Session for reclaiming him". Several minutes between this and the next extract record that "prayer was offered for the reclaiming of Walter Purdy".

14 July, 1707, "The Session having long patience with Walter Purdy and the Presbytery having some time ago appointed Mr. Crawford to declare him (continuing obstinate) to be none of ours also of late having appointed him, and withal Purdy having promised to attend the Presbytery which he did not but reviles us and the Presbytery on which Mr. Crawford is to declare him the said Walter Purdy on the next Lord's day to be none of our communion".

5 August, 1707 (four years after the case began), "Mr. Crawford declared after sermon (having given the whole of the carriage both with respect to Presbytery and Session) Walter Purdy to be none of our communion and exhorted all from any such practices which may terminate in so doleful issue".

The ruling elders themselves were subject to the same discipline in the Session as any other member of the congregation, and there are numerous instances of ruling elders appearing on trial.

In addition "privy censures" were held at least once each year, but in most districts much more frequently, in which each ruling elder was dismissed in turn and his carriage, both as an elder and as an individual, was scrutinised by the other members of Session, and in some places he was questioned on certain matters by the Session. Boardmills' minutes preserve a list of the questions used in that Session. They are :

  1. Do you worship God in your family, morning and evening, by singing His praise, reading His Word, and praying ?"

  2. Do you worship God in any family where you are in Providence lodged, as there is access ?"

  3. Do you pray in secret at least morning and evening?"
  4. Do you pray for gifts and for success in your office ?"
  5. Do you instruct your family in the principles of religion commonly once a week ?"
  6. Do you endeavour to cause everyone in your family to pray in secret morning and evening, to sanctify the Sabbath, and to have a conversation becoming the Gospel ?"
  7. Do you endeavour, through grace, by a holy and circumspect walk, to be an example to the flock over which the Holy Ghost has made you an overseer?"
  8. Do you endeavour to discourage vain and unprofitable discourse in all companies where you are in Providence, and to encourage grave and serious discourse to the use of edifying ?"
  9. Do you endeavour to exercise discipline impartially and without respect of persons ?"
  10. With respect to private offences, do you observe the rule Matt. xviii, 15, to tell offending parties their offence privately before they are brought to the Session?"
  11. Do you, as you have opportunity, and as it may tend to edification, not only reprove persons guilty of gross swearing, but also such as are guilty of minced oaths ?"
  12. Do you visit the sick when called, and sometimes without being called ?"
  13. Do you, both by your example and office as elder, endeavour to suppress vice and encourage piety?"
  14. Do you endeavour, as you have opportunity, and according as the Lord enables you; to be faithful in the duties incumbent on you as a Christian and as Elder ?"

Originally a Charge or Complaint against a minister was dealt with by Presbytery, but one against an elder by the Session. but in the 1912 Code the latter also is transferred to Presbytery.

The exercise of Church discipline raises the question of the relationship to the Civil Magistrate. Only four cases occur in extant records prior to 1840. The Carnmoney Session show some hesitancy in taking up a matter punishable by the civil court in 1702 ; and the Larne Session in 1701 and the Connor Session in 1704 and again in 1720 refuse to deal with cases until the civil trial is over. The Larne book gives no record of later proceedings, but in both cases in Connor the culprits are later subjected to Church censure.

Another duty of Kirk-Sessions was to appoint representatives to the superior Courts of the Church. The representative appointed was always a member of the Session making the appointment, in accordance with the doctrine that he was the "representative of a congregation". Up to 1801 each congregation sent one representative elder, but from 1801 to 1825 collegiate charges "sent an elder with each minister to the Judiciaries of this Church" in the Synod of Ulster. However, in 1825 the Synod restored the original practice of "an elder from each congregation".9. The Secession Synod never departed from the principle that the representative elder was the representative of a Session.10.

Up to 1912, the representative elder from a Session was always a member of the Session making the appointment. For political reasons a change was introduced with regard to representation in the Assembly, and now a Session may nominate an elder from any Session within the Assembly as representative elder to the Assembly, from any Session within the Synod to the Synod, and from any Session within the Presbytery to the Presbytery. This practice has tended to undermine the doctrine of the elder as the representative of a Session to the higher Courts of the Church, and through the Session the representative of a congregation.

In Church Courts it would appear that during a vacancy in a congregation no representative elder was appointed.

This conclusion is based on the fact that in a number of old Presbytery minutes one gets the following entry�"Vacant. No elder". Further, it may be inferred from the fact that the Synod of Ulster in 1802 agreed, "That elders from all congregations whether vacant, or planted, shall be admitted to sit, speak, and vote, as members on all questions which shall come before the Synod", as the marginal heading is "Elders from vacant congregations admitted to vote".11.

Sessions had to make preparation of hospitality for Presbyteries when visiting congregations. They, also, had to answer all questions concerning the congregation addressed to them by the Presbytery ; contribute to the Clerk's fees ; and carry out decisions of Presbytery.

An interesting point with regard to membership of Sessions is that "students in Divinity and Probationers . . . may act as elders for the congregations in which they reside".12. This practice ceased in 1840. In 1926, the General Assembly enacted with regard to the eldership, "Women shall be eligible for election on the same conditions as men".13.

In addition to business meetings, Sessions held special meetings for discussion. They, indeed, as the Larne minutes show, thought little of considering in one evening "private judgment, a heretic, and the Trinity".

The account of Session and congregational life in this chapter, and the preceding one, gives a general picture up to about one hundred years ago, with a note on the changes which have since then taken place.

The duties of minister and Session today remain substantially the same as at the beginning, but, in practice many changes have taken place, owing to the Marriage Act of 1844, and the development of social services. Further, Sessions are much more humane in their approach to human problems, and discipline is, generally speaking, carried out with the approval of Sessions by the minister, with reference made to the Session in cases of special difficulty.

The minister and Session still exercise oversight over the congregation, and their authority ought to receive due recognition. They may not exercise their influence according to the old form of discipline, but, as Professor G. D. Henderson says, "the moral and spiritual influence of a Christian minister and a body of Christian elders in a congregation and a community will always be an irresistible authority".14. Today, as always, they are required to exercise the discipline of the witness of a holy and godly life.


The purpose of this chapter is to set forth the standards for Doctrine, Worship, and Government of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The Constitution of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, with the General Assembly as its Supreme Court, is laid down in the Act of Union, 1840, in which her Standards are set forth as "the Standards of the Church of Scotland".1.


The Doctrines of the Christian Church divide into three groups : (i) Catholic Doctrines, common to all Christians, which are summarised in the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed; (ii) Evangelical Doctrines, common to all Protestants, by which they are distinguished from Romanists; and (iii) Particular Doctrines, that is, Doctrines by which the particular Churches, for example, Anglican, Lutheran, and Reformed, are distinguished from one another.2. The Faith of the Presbyterian Church is Catholic, Evangelical, and Reformed, and has been set out, from time to time, in the various Confessions.

The ministers and elders forming the first Presbytery in Ireland had as their Standard of Doctrine the Word of God, and the "Scots Confession (1560)", which states in its preface, "If any man will note in this our confession any Article or sentence repugnant to God's holy word, that it would please him of his gentleness and for Christian charity's sake to admonish us of the same in writing; and we upon our honour and fidelity, by God's grace do promise unto him satisfaction from the mouth of God, that is, from His holy scriptures, or else reformation of that which he shall prove amiss".3.

When the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland adopted the Westminster "Confession of Faith" in her Act of 1647, the Presbytery in Ulster followed suit in the same terms.4. This, along with the Westminster Catechisms, remains the subordinate Doctrinal Standard of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The history of subscription to this Confession was outlined in chapters II and III, and today all ministers and elders are required to subscribe it in terms of the General Assembly's formula, which is :-

"I believe the Westminster Confession of Faith, as desscribed in the Code, to be founded on, and agreeable to, the Word of God, and as such I subscribe it as the confession of my faith".5.

The relation of the Church's Belief to Holy Scripture as the Supreme Standard, and the "Confession of Faith", as a Subordinate Standard, is set forth in the "Rule of Faith" in the "Code", as follows :-

"The Word of God as set forth in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments is the only infallible rule of faith and practice, and the supreme standard of the Church.

"It is the privilege, right, and duty of every man to examine the Scriptures for himself, and he is bound to submit to their authority. In exercising the inalienable right of private judgment the Christian is not to set his reason above the Word of God, or to refuse light from any quarter, and, guided by the Holy Spirit, he is to use his reason to ascertain the Divine will as revealed in Scripture, and he is to refuse to subject conscience to any authority but that of the Word of God. Having formed a definite conviction as to what the will of God is upon any subject it is his duty to accept and obey it . . .

"The Presbyterian Church in Ireland, as a witness for Christ, has adopted subordinate standards, in which is set forth what she understands the Word of God to teach on certain important points of doctrine and worship. These subordinate standards are a testimony for truth, and against error, and serve as a bond of union for members of the Church.

"The Confession of Faith as approved by the Church of Scotland in her Act of 1647, and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, prepared by the Westminster Assembly of Divines, are the subordinate standards of the Church . . .

"In the Church resides the right to interpret and explain her standards under the guidance of the Spirit of God".6.


The first Presbyterians in Ireland accepted as their Standard for the ordering of Public Worship, and administering the Sacraments, the Scottish "Book of Common Order (1564)". In Ireland, however, its usage was considerably influenced by Brownism.7.

In Scotland, the "Book of Common Order" was replaced by the Westminster "Directory for the Public Worship of God" in 1645. In 1647, says Adair, the "Scottish Assembly did recommend the Directory for Worship unto the practice of ministers in this country, which was accordingly by act of Presbytery begun".8. It was revised by the Synod of Ulster in 1825, and in 1841, 1859, 1868, and 1887, by the General Assembly; and is still the normative Standard for Worship.

In 1942, "A Book of Orders for Public Worship" was published "by authority of the General Assembly". This is a revision of two earlier editions, 1923 and 1931, but they, while prepared by a Committee of the General Assembly, were published "by authority of the Committee" not of the General Assembly. However, in practice, it is not so widely used, and consulted, as the "Book of Common Order (1940)" of the Church of Scotland.

The first Psalter used in Irish Presbyterianism was the Scottish Psalter of 1564. The Westminster Assembly prepared a new Psalter on the basis of Rous' version, which was considerably revised by the Scottish Church before it was issued for use in 1650. This was used in Ireland up to 1880, when it was replaced by the Irish Psalter, which is still in use.

Considerable controversy arose towards the close of the nineteenth century over the introduction of hymnody into Irish Presbyterian worship. Some congregations in the Synod of Ulster had used the scriptural paraphrases and hymns prior to the Union with the Secession Synod in 1840, but to facilitate the Union the Church's praise was limited to "the metrical version of the Psalms used by the Church of Scotland".9 However, in 1895, the General Assembly set up a committee to select suitable material for a hymnary, but as the Scottish Churches were engaged in preparing a new common hymnbook the members of the Irish committee co-operated with them, and the "Church Hymnary" was sanctioned for use in congregations in 1899. This was revised by the hymn-using Presbyterian Churches in Scotland, Ireland, England, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa, and issued as the "Revised Church Hymnary" in 1928.


The Standard of Government of the first Presbyterian ministers in Ireland was the second Scottish "Book of Discipline". This was replaced by the Westminster "Form of Presbyterial Church Government and Directory for Ordination" in 1645, which was adopted in Ireland in accordance with the Scottish adopting Act, in 1647. Revised editions of it were produced by the Synod of Ulster in 1825, and in 1841, 1859, 1868, and 1887, by the General Assembly. It remains the normative Standard of Government.

Irish Presbyterianism, as regards practice and procedure, governed herself in accordance with the Acts of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. This is evident from the decisions of the General Synod of Ulster in 169710. and 1711,11. quoted in chapter I, and other similar enactments. The first Irish "Code of Discipline" was not produced until 1825, when one was issued by the Synod of Ulster. This was revised at the Union, and published by the General Assembly in 1841. Since then revisions have been made in 1859, 1868, 1887, 1912, and 1948. Owing to the amount of new legislation adopted in recent years, another revision is overdue.

Church and Ministry

The Church is the People of God. She is created by God, founded upon Jesus Christ, and sustained through the Holy Spirit. The Presbyterian Church is that branch of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church, Reformed according to the Word of God, which proclaims Jesus Christ to be the sole King and Head of the Church and the World, which orders her ministry on the Ministry of the Word in the New Testament as a gift of Christ to His Church, and in which, as in the New Testament, "episcope" (oversight) is exercised through presbyters, who are Ministers of the Word, and in which Ministers are ordained by prayer with the laying on of hands by "those preaching presbyters to whom it doth belong", that is, the ministers of the Presbytery of the bounds.12.

The Minister of the Word is responsible for the proclamation of the Word, conducting Public Worship, the celebration of the Sacraments, the administration of Ordinances, and pastoral oversight in the local congregation.

Ruling elders, that is, men and women with gifts of government, are appointed in each congregation to co-operate with, and assist, the Minister of the Word in the exercise of oversight. Elders, originally, were elected to office for a year, and were eligible for re-election, then they were elected for life while they remained members of the congregation in which they were ordained, but ceased to be elders on removal to another congregation. Today they are ordained for life, but to exercise their ministry must be members of a Kirk-Session, that is, an elder removing from one congregation to another no longer exercises his office unless he is elected and installed, or co-opted, a member of the Kirk-Session in his new congregation.

Deacons are appointed to administer the financial affairs of the congregation for the benefit of the Church, her missions, her social services to the poor, the orphan, and such like. Originally they attended meetings of Session.13. This work came, from the end of the eighteenth century, to be placed more and more in the hands of Committees of Management. Today the Committee meets as a separate body, of which the elders are "ex-officio" members.

The Courts of the Church

The government of the Presbyterian Church is exercised through a series of graded Ecclesiastical Courts�KirkSession, Presbytery, Synod, and General Assembly.

The Westminster "Confession of Faith" says of the Courts of the Church, "Ministers of Christ of themselves, by virtue of their office, or they, with other fit persons upon delegation from their churches, may meet together in such assemblies".14. This means that every Minister of the Word must be a member of a Session and of a Presbytery. Synod and Assembly, on the other hand, are Representative Courts, and in some countries in these two Courts there is a proportional representation of Presbyteries. In Ireland, however, all ministers and an elder representing each Kirk-Session are members, because numbers are not so large as to make this impossible or unworkable.

Because the government of the Church stands under, and is subject to, the Word of God, a Minister of the Word presides in all the Courts of the Church as Moderator.

In addition to ministers, elders "upon delegation from their churches", or, as we would say today, "who are duly commissioned", meet in the higher Courts of the Church. Originally, the representative elder had to be a member of the Session commissioning him, but, as we saw in chapter VI, this is no longer the case.

The Kirk-Session consists of the minister, who because he is a Minister of the Word presides as Moderator, and of the ruling elders of the local congregation. The minister and elders, as the Session, co-operate in the oversight of the congregation.

The Presbytery consists of the ministers, "by virtue of their office", one of whom because he is a Minister of the Word presides as Moderator, and a ruling elder duly commissioned representing each Kirk-Session, in a specified area. The Presbytery is required to see that each congregation is supplied with the Word and Ordinances, to exercise "oversight" over all ministers and congregations within its bounds, and all students and licentiates under its care. Three members, one being a minister, form a quorum in a Presbytery, but in ordination it is required that three ministers lay on hands.''

The Synod is a Representative Court consisting of the ministers, one of whom because he is a Minister of the Word presides as Moderator, and the ruling elders duly commissioned from Kirk Sessions, within a certain specified province. The Synod, as a representative Court of all the Presbyteries in a specified area, has authority to exercise oversight over the Presbyteries making up its membership.

The General Assembly is the Supreme Court of the Church. It consists of the ministers, one of whom because he is a Minister of the Word presides as Moderator, and the ruling elders duly commissioned by Kirk-Sessions. As a representative Court of all the Presbyteries of the Church, the General Assembly has authority to exercise oversight over the whole work of the Church.


The Presbyterian Church in Ireland thanks God for His providential love and care as she faces the future. Apart from her evangelical, teaching, and pastoral mission, which must always be assigned the primacy, the chief problems today appear to be : (i) financing Church Extension, (ii) finding a solution, in the best interests of the Church, to the financial problems involved in the maintenance of two Theological Colleges, (iii) overcoming a ministerial man-power shortage, (iv) overcoming an unconscious tendency, owing to the division of Ireland and the shifting of population, to think at times, in terms of Northern Ireland instead of Ireland, (y) rooting out a tendency towards "Independency" or "Congregationalism" in the approach of some congregations to Church problems, (vi) endeavouring, under the guidance of the Spirit of God, on a basis of mutual recognition in Christ to be a unifying factor in Irish Protestantism, and (vii) ever to strive in the name of Jesus Christ, the sole King and Head of the Church, that Ireland may become a Christian nation.

Chapter 1

1.  St. Patrick, edit. J. Ryan.
O'Rahilly: The Two Patricks.
. White: Life and Writings of St. Patrick
Bury: Life of St. Patrick.
Bieler: Life and Legend of St. Patrick.
2. Oulton: Credal Statements of St. Patrick.
White: Teaching of St. Patrick,
3. Kerr: Independence of the Celtic Church in Ireland.
Stokes: Anglo-Norman Church in Ireland.
4. Curtis and McDowell, pp. 17-18.
5. Curtis and McDowell, pp. 19-22.
6. Curtis and McDowell, pp. 18-19.
7. 28 Henry VIII cap 5.
8. Phillips, ii. p. 526.
9. O'Grady, i. pp. 465-466.
10. Holloway, pp. 228-233
11. Jackson, p. 185.
12.  Bramhall to Laud, Dec., 1634.
13. Adair, p. 9.
14. Fasti: edit. McConnell.
15. Fasti: edit. H. Scott.
Pearson MSS. ii, pp. 498, 520, etc.
Fasti Ecclesiae Hiberniae.
16. Pearson: Origins, p. 1.
17. Autobiography: edit. Stevenson, p. 52.
Reid, i. p. 103, n. 38.
18. McMillan, pp. 342-361.
19. Biblical Theology, vii. p. 60.
20. Historical MSS. Commission, vii. p. 61.
21.  Bolton, p. 15.
22. Pine, p. xviii.
23. Angus: MSS. p. 224.
24. Reid, i. p. 247, n. 29.
. Cal. State Papers dom. 1639, p. 222
25. Select Biographies: edit. Tweedie, i. p. 131.
Livingstone : Autobiography, p. 161.
26. Latimer: History, p. 48.
27. Stewart : History, p. 50.
28. Reid, i. p. 370.
29. Hutton, p. 127.
Hetherington: History of the Westminster Assembly, p. 85.
30. Hutton, p. 147.
31. Beckett : History, p. 88.
32. Solemn League and Covenant.
33. Henderson: Lawfulness of the Expedition into England.
Carruthers, p. 1.
34. Minutes: edit. Mitchell and Struthers, p. lxxx.
35. Macalister: English Authors of the Shorter Catechism, p. 11.
36. Acts of GA of Church of Scotland, 1645.
Davies: Early Stuarts, pp. 189-192.
37. Macalister: English Authors of the Shorter Catechism, p. 12.
38. Acts of GA of Church of Scotland, 1645, 1647.
39. Adair, pp. 135-137.
40. Reid, ii. pp. 88-95.
41. C. Hill, pp. 23-24.
42. C. Hill, p. 24.
43. Reid, ii. p. 151 n.
44. Trevelyan, p. 332.
45. Pine, pp. xxviii-xxix.
46. Bolton, p. 33.
47. Carte MSS. 221, 162.
48. Pine, p. xix.
49. Hallam: ii. p. 213.
50. Pine, p. xxi.
51. Adair, p. 252.
52. Reid, ii. p. 284.
53. Froude, i. p. 179.
54. Froude, i. p. 179.
55. Simms, p. 162.
56. Beckett : Protestant Dissent, pp. 28-29.
57. Min. GSU, p. 6.
58. Min. GSU, pp. 22, 234.
59. Walkington to Wodrow, Oct., 1698.
60. Beckett: Protestant Dissent, p. 38.
61. Smiles.
Lee, PP. 219-220.
Beckett: Protestant Dissent, pp. 124-125.
Reid, ii. pp. 465-466.
62. Beckett: Protestant Dissent, p. 125.
63. Lee, p. 225.
64. 4 William and Mary, c. 2.
4 Anne, c. 14.
4 George I, c. 9.
65. Dublin Historical Record, 1946, p. 118.
66. Commons' jour. Ire. ii. 529, 600, 604-605, 628.
67. Cal. State Papers dom., 1696, pp. 5-6.
68. Beckett: Protestant Dissent, pp. 126-127.
69. King to Vigors, circa 1710 (MS.)
70. Reid, iii. pp. 26-27.
71. Beckett: Protestant Dissent, p. 128.
72. Burn, p. 250.
73. Lee, p. 261.
Smiles, pp. 259-366, 387-388.
74. Curry, appendix xvi.
75. Beckett : Protestant Dissent, p. 50.
76. King to Swift, Nov., 1711.
77. Missionary Herald, 1848.
78. Beckett: History, p. 152.

Chapter II

1. Min. GSU, 1704.
2. Min. GSU, 1710.
3. Min. GSU, 1726.
4. Min. GA, 1854.
5. Lords' jour. Ire. ii.
6. King to Wake, 10th Nov., 1719.
7. Min. GSU, pp. 34, 100.
8. Reid, iii. p. 121.
9. Orthodox Presbyterian, i. p. 119.
10. Judicial Testimony.
11. Latimer: History, p. 157.
12. Stewart: Seceders, p. 115.
13. A Serious Warning.


Stewart; Seceders, pp. 200-2W

15. Stewart: Seceders, p. 70.
16. Stewart: Seceders, p. 114.
17. Davey, p. 14.
18. Green, p. 78.
19. Mrs. Green: Irish Nationality, pp. 174-176, 211-213.
Trevelyan, pp. 320, 452-454.
20. Lecky, ii. p. 51.
21. Belfast News-Letter, 22nd Feb., 1782.
22. Belfast News-Letter, 22nd Feb., 1782.
23. Speeches of the Rt. Hon. Henry Grattan, iii. p. 31.
Taafe, iv. p. 436.
24. Latimer: History, p. 177.
25. Killen, ii. p. 363.
26. Latimer: History, p. 178.
27. Shearman, p. 151.
28. 1798, edit. Robb, p. 7.
29. 1798, edit. Robb, pp. 7-8.
30. Min. GSU, 1798.
31. Beckett: History, p. 137.
Latimer: History, p. 179.
Hay, pp. 156-179.
32. McDowell: Irish Public Opinion, pp. 240-242.
33. Correspondence, iii. pp. 100-102.
34. Quoted Marshall, p. 33.
35. Marshall, pp. 44-45.
36. Woodburn, p. 213.
37. Quoted Marshall, p. 48.
38. Glasgow: Scotch-Irish and the American Colonies, chap. ix.
39. Marshall, p. 52.
40. Reid, ii. p. 482.


Chapter III

1. Reid, iii. pp. 425-433.
2. Davey, p. 13.
3. Min. GSU, 1827.
4. Min. GSU, 1828.
5. Min. GSU, 1829. ,
6. Min. GA, 1854.
Code (1948), para. 369E.
7. Latimer: History, p. 206.
8. Latimer: History, p. 206.
9. Latimer: History, p. 207.
10. Quoted Latimer: History, p. 207.
11. Min. GSU, 1839.
12. Min. GA, 1840.
13. Reid, iii. pp. 477-479.
14. Min. GA, p. 24.
15. Code (1841), chap. v, sec. 1.
16. Latimer: History, p. 212.
17. Ulster since 1800 (Second series), p. 193.
18. Min. GA, p. 413.
19. Ulster since 1800 (Second series), p. 198.
20. Davey, pp. 41-45.
21. Beckett: History, p. 159.
22. Curtis, pp. 373-374.
23. Cronne, pp. 278-297.
24. Min. GA, 1871-1884.
25. Cronne, p. 300.
26. Ulster since 1800 (First series), p. 44.
27. Ulster since 1800 (First series), p. 49.
28. Stewart: History, p. 175.
29. Davey, p. 62.
30. Irish Amsterdam.
Irish Evanston.
31. Min. Belfast Presbytery, 1873.


Chapter IV

1. Code (1841), chap. i, sec. 1.
2. Code (1841), chap. i, sec. 2.
3. Code (1841), chap. i, sec. 3.
4. Code (1841), chap. i, sec. 4.
5. Code (1841), chap. i, sec. 5.
6. Code (1841), chap. i, sec. 6.
7. Code (1841), chap. i, sec. 7.
8. Code (1841), chap. i, sec. 8.
9. Code (1841), chap. i, sec. 9.
10. Code (1841), chap. i, sec. 10.
11. Adair, pp. 213-214.
12. Orthodox Presbyterian, i. p. 119.
13. Adair, p. 246.
14. Orthodox Presbyterian, i. p. 120.
15. Min. GSU, 1831, 1834.
16. Stewart: Seceders, pp. 81, 95, 107, 124.
17. Stewart: Seceders, pp. 152-153, 155, 182, 187.
18. Min. GA, 1841.
19. Min. GA, 1854.
20. Min. GA, 1843, 1846.
21. Code (1841), chap. iv, sec. 2.
22. Code (1841), chap. iv, sec. 3.
23. Code (1841), chap. iv, sec. 22.
24. Code (1841), chap. iv, sec. 4.
25. Code (1841), chap. iv, sec. 5.
26. Min. Presbyteries of Route, Antrim, Laggan, Tyrone, Down, Belfast.
27. Westminster Form of Presbyterial Church Government.
28. Westminster Form of Presbyterial Church Government.
29. Min. Session of First Ballybay.
30. Min. Presbytery of Belfast.
31. Min. Presbytery of Route, Down. Antrim, Laggan, Tyrone, Belfast.
32. Code (1825) ; Code (1841), chap. iv, sec. 22
33. Code (1825) ; Code (1841), chap. iii. sec. 2.
Barkley: Ruling Eldership, pp. 162-165.
34. Code (1948), para. 228(9).
35. Code (1948), para. 228(21).
36. Code (1948), para. 717.
37. Code (1948), para. 719.
38. Acts of GA of Ch. of Scotland, 1697.
39. Code (1841), chap. v, sec. 2, para. 13(6).
40. Code (1948), para. 399L.
41. Acts of GA of Ch. of Scotland, 1697.


Chapter V

1. Barkley: Ruling Eldership, ii. pp. 218, 228.
2. Code (1859), chap. iv, sec. 1, para. 11.
3. Code (1825) ; Code (1841), chap. iii, sec. I.
Code (1859). chap. iv, sec. 1, para. 5.


Code (1825). chap iii. sec 1.


Code (1825), chap. iii, sec. 2.


Christian Freeman, iii. p. 200.


Code (1825), chap. iii, sec. 2, para. 1.


Code (1859), chap. iv, sec. 1, para. 4.


Code (1887), para. 152.


Sec. iv. 1.


Sec. iii.


Code (1825) ; Code (1841), chap. iv, sec. 11.


Code (1825), chap. iv, sec. 14-15.


Henderson: Scottish Ruling Elder, p. 41.


Quick: Synodicon, i, pp. 35, 53, ii, p. 81.


Barkley: Ruling Eldership, ii. pp. 76, 156, 206.

Milne: Communion Tokens.


Min. Sessions of Carnmoney and Templepatrick.


Code (1825), chap. iv, sec. 17.



Smythe and Bourke.


Min. GSU, 1701, 1712, 1751, 1805, etc.


Barkley: Ruling Eldership, ii. pp. 152, 165, 231, 237.


Code (1825), chap. iv, sec. 17-19.
Directory (1825), xiii.


Chapter VI


Presbyterian Herald, 1959.


Min. GSU, 1720.


Presbyterian Herald, 1959.


Min. of Committee, 1826-28.


Code (1825), chap. iv, sec. 23, para. 2-3.


Min. GSU, 1701, 1705, 1717, 1748, etc.


Code (1825), pp. 71-72.


Barkley: Ruling Eldership, pp. 40, 56, 140, 155, 173, 261, etc.


Min. GSU, 1800-1801.

Code (1825), chap. i, sec. 10.


Min. Secession Synod.


Min. GSU, 1802.


Min. GSU, 1802.

Barkley: Ruling Eldership, ii. p. 254.


Min. GA, 1926.


Henderson: Scottish Ruling Elder, p. 290.


Chapter VII


Act of Union.

Min. GA, 1840.


Barkley: Westminster Formularies, p. 14.


Scots Confession (1560); edit. Henderson, p. 41.


Adair, p. 135.

Min. GSU, pp. 34, 100, 110.


Code (1948), para. 129D, 369E.


Code (1948), chap. ii.


cf. Sprott.


Adair, p. 136.


Directory (1841), iii, 2,


Min. GSU, p. 22.


Min. GSU, p. 234.


Westminster Form of Presbyterial Church Government.


Min. Session of Templepatrick, 22nd Nov., 1646.


West. Conf. of Faith, xxxi. 2.


West. Directory for Ordination.




Minutes of the Antrim Meeting, 1654-58, 1671-91.
Minutes of the Laggan Presbytery, 1672-95.
Minutes of the Route Presbytery, 1701-06.
Minutes of the Down Presbytery, 1707-15, 1785-1840.
Minutes of the Belfast Presbytery, 1774-96, 1873.
Minutes of the Monaghan Presbytery (Secession), 1777-1820,
Minutes of the Upper Tyrone Presbytery, 1802-1840.
Minutes of various Presbyteries and Kirk-Sessions.


R. Allen: The Principle of Non-Subscription to Creeds and Confessions of Faith as exemplified in Irish Presbyterian history, 1944.
F. J. G. Angus: Strafford's Ecclesiastical Policy in Ireland, 1959.
W. D. Bailie: The Six-mile Water Revival, 1955.
J. M. Barkley: The Ruling Eldership in Irish Presbyterianism, 1954. George Mathews, Esquire, 1954.
A. F. S. Pearson: Scottish Settlements in Ireland, 1560-1640, 1948, 2 vols.
A. T. Q. Stewart: The Decline of Ulster liberalism in the early nineteenth century, 1956.

Printed records:

Proceedings of the General Synod of Ulster, 1691-1841. Proceedings of the Secession Synod of Ireland, 1818-41. Minutes of the General Assembly, 1840-1958.
Proceedings and Publications of the Irish Presbyterian Historical Society, 1907-58.
Calendars of State Papers (Ireland), 1509-1670, 24 vols. Journals of the House of Commons of Ireland, 1613-1800. journals of the House of Lords of Ireland, 1613-1800.
Statutes at large passed in the Parliaments held in Ireland, 20 vols.

Periodicals and Journals:

Irish Historical Studies (1938-58).
Records of the Scottish Church History Society (1923-58).
The Orthodox Presbyterian, 1829-38 (Synod of Ulster).
The Christian Freeman, 1832-36 (Secession Synod).
The Bible Christian, 1830-56 (Non-Subscribing).
Missionary 1843-1942 (General Assembly).
The Irish Presbyterian, 1853-58, 1895-1942. The Evangelical Witness, 1862-73. The Christian Banner, 1872-1909. The Presbyterian Churchman, 1877-94. The Presbyterian Herald, 1943-59.


Belfast News-Letter, 1737-1958. Banner of Ulster, 1842-70. The Witness, 1874-1941.

Printed works:

P. Adair: True Narrative of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, edit. Killen, 1866.
R. Allen: The Presbyterian College, Belfast, 1954.
James Seaton Reid, 1951.
J. Armstrong: History of the Presbyterian Churches in the city of Dublin, 1829.
R. Bagwell: Ireland under the Tudors, 1885, 3 vols. Ireland under the Stuarts, 1909, 3 vols.
J. M. Barkley: Westminster Formularies in Irish Presbyterianism, 1956.
J. C. Beckett: Protestant Dissent in Ireland, 1687-1780. 1946. History of Ireland, 1952.
R. Blair: Autobiography, edit. McCrie, 1848.
F. R. Bolton: Caroline Tradition in the Church of Ireland, 1958. W. M. Brady: State Papers concerning the Irish Church, 1868. J. S. Burn: History of the French Refugees in England, 1846.
S. W. Carruthers: Solemn League and Covenant, n.d.
J. T. Carson: God's River in Spate, 1958.
Clark: Later Stuarts, 1955.
C. Cornwallis: Correspondence, edit. Ross, 1859, 3 vols.
A. Cronne, edit.: Essays in British and Irish History, 1949. J. Curry: Review of the Civil Wars in Ireland, 1786, 2 vols. E. Curtis: History of Ireland, 1936.
E. Curtis and R. B. McDowell, edit. Irish Historical Documents, 1943. J. E. Davey: Story of a Hundred Years, 1940.
G. Davies: `Early Stuarts, 1952.
C. Dickson: The Wexford rising in 1798; 1955.
R. Dill: Prelatico-Presbyterianism, 1856.
R. D. Edwards: Church and State in Tudor Ireland, 1935. W. H. Faloon: Marriage Law in Ireland, 1881.
J. A. Froude: The English in Ireland, 1887, 3 vols.
W. Gibson: Year of Grace, 1860.Grattan: Speeches, edit. by his son, 1822, 4 vols.
A. S. Green: Irish Nationality, 1911..
J. R. Green: Short History of the English People, 1880. H. Hallam: Constitutional History of England, 1899.
T. Hamilton: Irish Presbyterian Church, 1887.
J. L. Hammond: Gladstone and the Irish Nation, 1938.
E. Hay: History of the Insurrection of the County Wexford, 1803.
M. Hayden and G. A. Moonan: Short History of the Irish people, n.d.
G. D. Henderson: The Scottish Ruling Elder, 1935. Scots Confession (1560), 1937.
C. Hill: Oliver Cromwell, 1958.
G Hill: Plantation of Ulster, 1877.  Plantation Papers, 1889.
H. Holloway: Reformation in Ireland, 1919.
W. H. Hutton: History of the English Church, vol. vi, 1913. Inglis: The Story of Ireland, 1956.
H. Irwin: History of Presbyterianism in Dublin and the South and West, 1890.
R. W. Jackson: History of the Church of Ireland, 1953.
W. D. Killen: Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, 1875, 2 vols. J. Kirkpatrick: Loyalty of Presbyterians, 1713.
W. T. Latimer: History of the Irish Presbyterians, 1902. Life and Times of Henry Cooke, 1888. Ulster Biographies, 1897.
A. G. Leckey: In the Days of the Laggan Presbytery, 1908.
W. E. H. Lecky: History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, 1912, 5 vols. Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland, 1912, 2 vols.
G. L. Lee: Huguenot Settlements in Ireland, 1936.
J. R. Leebody : Short History of Magee College, 1915.
J. Livingstone: Autobiography, edit. Houston, 1848.
F. S. L. Lyons: Irish Parliamentary Party, 1890-1910; 1951.
J. McConnell: Fasti of the Irish Presbyterian Church. Presbyterianism in Belfast, 1912.
R. B. McDowell: Irish Public Opinion, 1750-1800; 1944. Public Opinion and Government Policy in Ireland, 1801-46; 1952.
W. McMillan: Worship of the Scottish Reformed Church, 1931. R. Madden: The United Irishmen, 1843, 7 vols.
W. F. Marshall: Ulster Sails West, 1944.
C. Maxwell, edit.: Irish History from Contemporary Sources, 1923.
C. Maxwell and K. C. Bailey: History of Trinity College, Dublin, 1946, 2 vols.
T. Maxwell: Irish Land Acts, 1903-1909; 1910.
A. F, Mitchell: Westminster Assembly, 1887.
A. F. Mitchell and J. Struthers: Minutes of Westminster Assembly, 1874.
T. W. Moody and J. C. Beckett, edit.. Ulster since 1800. Series "1 and 2.
H. Morley, edit.: Ireland under Elizabeth and James I, 1890.
R. H. Murray: Revolutionary Ireland and its Settlement, 1911.
I. Nelson: Year of Delusion, 1861.
J. O'Connor: History of Ireland, 1798-1924; 1925, 2 vols.
H. A. O'Grady: Strafford and Ireland, 1923, 2 vols.
A. F. S. Pearson: Origins of Irish Presbyterianism, n.d.
W. A. Phillips, edit.: History of the Church of Ireland, 1933, 3 vols.
L.G. Pine, edit.: Who's Who in the Free Churches, 1951.
J. B. Pomfret: Struggle for Land in Ireland, 1800-1923; 1930.
J. P. Prendergast: Cromwellian Settlement in Ireland, 1865. Presbyterian Church in Ireland: Code of Discipline, 1841, 1859, 1868, 1887, 1912, 1948.
J. Quick: Synodicon, 1692.
J. S. Reid: History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, 1867, 3 vols. (vol. iii completed by Killen).
V. Ronan: Reformation in Ireland under Elizabeth, 1930.
J. Ryan, edit.: St. Patrick, 1958.
Scotland, Church of: Book of the Universal Kirk, edit. Peterkin, 1839. Acts and Proceedings from 1638: edit. Peterkin, 1838.
H. Shear man : Anglo-Irish Relations, 1948.
J. G. Simms: Williamite Confiscation in Ireland, 1690-1703; 1956.
S. Smiles: Huguenots in England and Ireland, 1867.
H. Smythe and R. Bourke: Report of Two Cases upon the Marriage Law of Ireland, 1842.
G. W. Sprott: Worship of the Church of Scotland during the Covenanting period, 1893.
A. Stewart: History of the Church in Ireland since the Scots were naturalised, edit. Killen, 1866.
D. Stewart: History and Principles of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, 1908.
The Seceders in Ireland, 1950.
D. Taafe : History of Ireland, 1809, 4 vols.
G. M. Trevelyan: England under the Stuarts, 1914.
Ulster, General Synod of : Code of Discipline, 1825.
C. V. Wedgwood: Strafford, 1938.
T. Witherow: Historical and Literary Memorials of Presbyterianism in Ireland, 1879. Series 1 and 2.
R. Wodrow: Correspondence, edit. McCrie, 1843, 3 vols.
J. B. Woodburn: Ulster Scot, 1914.


Academical Institution, Belfast, 44, 46, 49, 56.
Academy, Belfast, 42.
Act of Union (1840), 51-52, 112.
Adrian IV, Pope, 1.
Alexander III, Pope, 1.
Alvey, Henry, 2.
America, 8, 35, 41-42. Irish vote in, 42. Presbyterianism in, 41-42.
Anne, Queen, 21, 22, 23, 26, 30.,
Anti-burghers, 27, 29, 31-33, 45, 50, 51, 69-70.
Antrim Meeting, 5. Presbytery of, 14, 16, 26, 27, 28, 29, 67, 68.
Argyll, Duke of, 62.
Arian Controversy (see Second Non-Subscription Controversy) Arianism, 47.
Armagh, Consistorial Court of, 55.
Articles of Religion, Irish, 2, 7. Thirty-nine, 7 Twelve, 2.
Associate Presbytery, 30, 31, 32.
Baillie, Robert, 11, 12.
Ballot Act, 60.
Ballymena, Presbytery of, 69, 72.
Bangor, Presbytery of, 69, 75.
Baptism, Sacrament of, 8, 90-92.
Barrier Act, 77.
Belfast Society, 28. Presbytery of (1697-1726), 25, 68. Presbytery of (1774- ), 62, 63, 72, 73, 75.
Black Oath, 8, 9.
Blackmouth, 36.
Bolase, Sir John, 9.
Boyd, Rev. Archbald, 48, 49.
Boyd, Mr. T. W., 41.
Bramhall, Archbishop, 3, 7, 16, 21.
Brownism, 11, 113.
Burghers, 27, 29, 31-33, 45, 50, 51, 69-70.
Butler, Sir Theobald, 22-23.
Butt, Isaac, 58.
Calvin, John, 42, 62.
Calvinism, 2, 7.
Canons, Irish (1634), 7, 16.
Carrickfergus, 10, 14, 19, 67.
Cartwright, Rev. Thomas, 2.
Carstairs, Rev. William, 29.
Cashel, Synod of, 1.
Castlereagh, Lord, 44-45.
Catechising, 98.
Catechism, Larger, 12, 33, 90, 98, 99, 113. Shorter, 12, 33, 47, 89, 90, 98, 99, 100, 113.
Catechumens, Admission of, 89-90.
Celtic Church, 1-2.
Charles I, 7, 40.
Charles II, 15, 16, 19, 68.
Charnock, Dr. Stephen, 14.
Chichester, Sir Arthur, 3.

Christian Banner, 36-37.
Christian Freeman, 82.
Church, Doctrine of, 64-66, 115-116.
Church Courts, Doctrine of, 66-67, 70-71, 116-117.
Church House, 61-62.
Civil War, Irish (1642), 11.
Cianeboy, Lord, 2.
Clarendon Code, 15-16.
Clotworthy, Sir John (see Massereene).
Code of Discipline (1825), 20, 78, 80, 83, 85, 94, 103, 114. (1841), 51-52, 64-66, 70-71, 77, 78, 80, 85, 98. (1859), 78, 79-80, 83, 98. (1868), 78, 98. (1887), 78, 83. (1912), 78, 110. (1948), 77, 78, 112-113.
Coleraine, Presbytery of, 69, 70, 75.
Colleges, Presbyterian (Assembly's), 49, 56-57. Magee, 57, 60.
Common Order, Book of (1564), 6, 11, 113. (1940), 114.
Confession, Scots,
11, 28, 112. Westminster, 12, 13, 28, 33, 34, 48, 50, 63, 73, 81, 82, 90, 98, 112, 113, 116.
Conventicles Act, 15.
Convocation, Irish, 2, 7, 22, 23.
Corporation Act, 15.
Covenant, National, 8, 30. Solemn League and, 11, 14, 29, 30. Ulster (1912), 40.
Cromwell, Oliver, 13, 14, 15.
Curran, John Philpot, 38,
D'Aubigne, Dr. Merle, 56.
Defenders, 36.
Derry, Siege of, 19, 23, 28.
Directory for Ordination, Westminster, 12, 73-74.
Directory for Public Worship, Westminster, 12, 13, 33, 34, 81, 113.
Discipline, First Book of,
13, 84. Second Book of, 11, 13, 84, 85, 114.
Disestablishment, 18, 37, 59-60.
Disraeli, Benjamin, 59.
Disruption, 29.
Doctrine, 112-113.
Donegal, Lord, 35.
Down, Presbytery of, 14, 16, 67, 68.
Downham, Bishop, 7.
Drennan, Dr. William, 38.
Drogheda, 13.
Dromore, Presbytery of, 69, 75.
Dublin, University of, 2, 17, 55-56, 60.
Duffield, Rev. George, 42.
Dunfermline, Presbytery of, 5.
Dunkeld, Bishop of, 6.
Eaglewing, 8.
Echlin, Bishop, 3, 4, 5, 6.
Education of Students, 20, 42-43, 49, 56-57, 60.
Elizabeth I, 13, 59.
Emancipation, Catholic, 46.
Emigration, 41.
Engagement, The, 14.
Erskine, Rev. Ebenezer, 30.
Famine, 53, 58.

Fenians, 58.
Fivemile Act, 15-16.
Fitzwilliam, Earl, 43.
Forbes, Sir Arthur, 18.
Form of Presbyterial Church Government, Westminster, 12, 33, 34, 66, 81, 114.
Form of Process (1707), 107.
Forster, Bishop, 27.
Free Church of Scotland, 29.
French Congregations (see Huguenots).
Fullerton, James, 2.
General Assembly, 51.-54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63, 77, 78, 91, 110, 111, 114, 115. Colleges (see Colleges). Foreign Missions, 52-53. Home and Irish Missions, 24, 52-53. Presbyteries of, 70. Social Services, 53-54. Synods of, 70.
General Fund, 14.
George I, 21.
George IV, 26.
Gillespie, Rev. George, 6, 12.
Gladstone, W. E., 35, 40, 57, 59-61.
Grattan, Henry, 36.
Greer, S. M., 60.
Haddington, Presbytery of, 6.
Hamilton, James (see Claneboy).
Hampton, Archbishop, 4.
Hampton, Rev. John, 42.
Hancock, John, 41.
Henderson, Rev. Alexander, 12.
Henry II, 1.
Henry VIII, 13.
High Commission, Court of, 5, 8, 9
Home Rule, 37, 40, 58, 59, 61.
Home Rule League, 58.
Huguenots, 21-22, 105.
Hymnody, 61, 114.
Indemnity, Acts of, 27. 34.
Instrumental Music, 61.
Inverkeithing, 5.
Irish Language, 24.
Ireland, Government of, Act, 62.
James VI and I, 14.
James II, 18.
Judicial Testimony, 30-31, 33.
King, Archbishop, 22, 23, 27.
Kirkcaldy, Presbytery of, 6.
Knox, Bishop, 3-4, 5, 6.
Knox, John, 52.
Labour Party (N.I.), 41.
Laggan, Presbytery of, 14, 16, 42, 67, 68, 74, 76.
Land Acts, 35, 60-61.

Lane, Sir George, 16.
Laud, Archbishop, 3, 7, 11, 16, 21.
Laudabiliter, Papal Bull, 1.
Leslie, Bishop of Down, 5, 8.
Leslie, Bishop of Raphoe, 5.
Letterkenny, Presbytery of, 69, 70, 85.
Liberalism, 40.
Limerick, Treaty of, 19.
Lindsay, Bishop, 21.
Linen Trade, 22.
Linenhall Library, 38.
Lochwinnoch, 5.
Loftus, Archbishop, 2.
Lord's Supper, Sacrament of, 3, 8, 84-89.
Lowry, Thomas, 37, 38.
McCabe, Thomas, 37, 38.
McCracken, Henry Joy, 37, 38.
McKemie, Rev. Francis, 41.
McKnight, Dr. James, 60.
McTier, Samuel, 38.
Marriage, 17, 23-24, 26, 35, 55, 92-95. Mary, Queen, 13.
Masserecne, Lord, 17.
Maynooth, St. Patrick's College, 56, 60.
Mene Tekel, 49.
Milton, John, 13.
Ministry, Doctrine of (see Church and Ordination).
Missions (see General Assembly).
Monaghan, Presbytery of, 68, 75, 98.
Mountjoy, Lord, 41.
Munro, General Robert, 10, 11.
Munroe, Henry, 38.
Munster, Synod or Presbytery of (1696-1809), 25, 26. Presbytery of (1840- ), 25, 26, 48, 70.
Murphy, Father John, 39.
Neilson, Samuel, 37, 38.
Nixon, John, 41.
Non-Subscribing Presbyterian Church, 26.
Non-Subscription Controversy, First, 25, 28-29, 31, 34. Second, 26, 29, 34, 45-48, 56.
Northern Star, 38.
O'Connell, Daniel, 24, 40, 58.
Owen Roe, 11,
Orange Society, 36-37, 40.
Ordinal (1620), 6.
Ordination, 6, 16, 71, 72-76, 114.
Ormonde, Viceroy, 16, 17.
Owen, Rev. John, 14.
Paisley, Presbytery of, 5.
Parliament, Cavalier, 15. Convention, 15. English, 19, 20, 22, 23, 34, 40, 41. Long, 11, 14, 16. Irish, 2, 9, 11, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 27. 34, 35, 36, 38, 40, 56.

Parliaments, Union of, 40.
Parnell, Charles Stewart, 59.
Parsons, Sir John, 9.
Patrick, St., 1.
Patronage Act, 30, 84.
Peep of Day Boys, 36.
Penal Laws, 18, 23, 34, 35.
Pitt, William, 40.
Plea of Presbyery, 49.
Presbyterian Alliance, World, 62-63.
Presbyterian Church in Ireland, Constitution, 51 53
Presbyterian Theological Faculty, 57.
Presbyterianism Defended, 48.
Presbytery, First Irish, 10, 67. Court of, chap. iv, 116.
Privy Censures, 109-110. Psalter, Irish, 114. Scottish, 114.
Queen's Colleges, 56-67.
Queen's University, Belfast, 56-57.
Rebellion, Irish (1641), 4, 9-10. (1798), 38-40.
Reformed Presbyterian Church, 29-30.
Regium Donum, 18, 19-20, 26-27, 31, 33-34, 44, 45, 48, 60.
Relief Church, Scotland, 29.
Remonstrant Synod, 26, 48.
Representation, Irish Presbyterian, 13.
Restoration, 15-18, 68.
Revival, Sixmile Water (1625), 5. (1859), 57-58, 98.
Revolution Settlement, 18-20, 29-30, 68, 76.
Robb, John, 37.
Rodgers, Rev. John, 42.
Route, Presbytery of, 14, 16, 67, 68, 69, 74, 76.
Row, Rev. William, 6.
Rule of Faith, 113.
Ruling Eldership, Doctrine of (see Church and Session).
Russell, Thomas, 38.
Rutherford, Rev. Samuel, 12.
Sampson, William, 38.
Scotland, Church of, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12-13, 20, 29, 30, 51, 81, 83, 91, 95, 107, 112, 113, 114.
Scott, Rev. John, 10.
Scullabogue, 39, 40.
Seceders, 27, 29-34, 45, 50, 51, 69-70, 114.
Secession Synod (see Seceders).
Serious Warning, 32.
Session, chaps. v and vi, 115.
Shorter Catechism (see Catechism).
Smith, Rev. Robert, 42.
Social Services (see General Assembly and Session).
Southern Association, 25, 26, 27.
Steelboys, 35.

Stewart, Henry, 9.
Strabane Academy, 42.
Presbytery of, 69, 70, 85.
Strafford, Earl of, 7-9, 10, 16, 21.
Stranraer, 8.
Subscription, Formula of, 112-113.
Tandy, Napper, 38.
Temple, William, 2.
Tenant-Right (see Land Acts).
Test Act, 16, 17, 22, 26, 33, 34, 35.
Thompson, Charles, 41,
Toleration Acts, 20, 27.
Tone, Wolfe, 38.
Travers, Rev. Walter, 2.
Trinity College (see Dublin University).
Tyrone, Presbytery of, 14. 16, 68, 73. Presbytery of Lower, 70, 76.
Ulster, Plantation of, 3, 5. Synod of, 10, 20, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 34, 39, 40, 44, 45, 46-48, 50, 51, 68, 80, 82, 84, 91, 92, 98, 99, 110. 111, 112, 113, 114, 115. sub-Synods of Synod, 68. Presbyteries of Synod, 68-69.
Ulster Custom (see Land Acts).
Uniformity, Act of, 15, 17.
Union of Synods, 45, 49-52, 54, 70.
Unionism, 40.
Unitarianism, 47.
United Irishmen. 36, 37-39.
Universities, Scottish, 6, 42, 55.
Upton, Colonel, 31.
Ussher, Archbishop, 2, 4.
Vigors, Bishop, 22.
Visitation of Congregations, 52, 71, 76.
Volunteers, 23, 35-36.
Wake, Archbishop, 27.
Walkington, Bishop, 20.
Warwick, Archibald, 39.
Wentworth, Sir Thomas (see Strafford).
Westminster Assembly, 12-13. Formularies (see under separate titles).
Wexford, 13, 38, 39.
Whiteboys. 35.
William IIl, 19-23, 26, 29, 68.
Woollen Trade, 22, 34.
Worship, Public (see Directory, Common Order), 113-114.
Yeomanry, 39-40.
Young Ireland Party, 58.
Zenana Association, 53.

(S) signifies Secession congregation.

Aghadowey, 80, 84, 86, 94, 102, 103, 106
Anahilt, 80, 91, 92, 93.
Antrim, 4, 10, 80, 88, 91, 95.
Armagh (S), 32.
Ballybay, 47, 74, 80, 88, 94, 99, 103.
Ballybay, New Erection (S) (see Cabans).
Ballycarry, 3.
Ballyclare, 105.
Ballymena, 4, 10.
Ballymoney, 14.
Ballynahinch (S), 44.
Ballyrashane (S), 32.
Ballyroney (S), 32, 38.
Ballywalter, 4, 10, 49.
Bandon, 17.
Bangor, 3, 10, 14.
Bangor (S), 32.
Belfast: First, 10, 100.

Third, 39, 44, 50, 80, 82-83, 85, 86.
Linenhall Street (S), 50. Donegall Street, 57.
Fisherwick, 50, 62.
May Street, 50.
Alfred Street (S), 53.

Belturbet, 24, 27.
Billy (see Bushmills).
Boardmills, 80, 84, 92, 109-110.
Boardmills (S), 32.
Broadisland (see Ballycarry).
Bushmills, 14.
Cabans (S), 79, 8C-82, 84, 91, 93, 98-99.
Cairncastle, 10, 87.
Carland, 4, 80, 84, 88-89, 92.
Carlow, 15, 22.
Carnmoney, 4, 79, 80, 84, 87, 90, 91, 94, 105, 106, 107, 108-109, 110.
Carrickfergus, 10, 103.
Castleblayney, 22.
Clonmel, 17.
Clontibret, 75.
Comber, 10, 60.

Connor, 58, 80, 85, 89, 91, 94-95, 99, 110.
Convoy, 76.
Cookstown, 32-33.
Cookstown (S), 32-33.
Cork, 17, 22,
Creggan, 84, 86, 89.
Dawson's Bridge, 80, 84, 88, 92, 107. Derry, First, 49.
Great James' Street, 49.
Derryfubble (S) (see Eglish).
Derrykeighan (see Dervock).
Dervock, 10.
Donaghadee, 10.
Donoughmore (see Carland). Donegore, 4.
Drogheda, 15, 24, 27.
Drumachose, 60.
Drumbo, 72, 73, 83, 84, 92, 103.

Mary's Abbey, 44, 78-79, 80, 85, 97, 100-101.
Wood Street, 14, 17, 25.
New Row (Eustace St.), 17, 25
Francis Street, 25.
Newmarket, 25.
Capel Street, 17, 25.
Bull Alley, 17.
Cook Street, 17, 25.
Plunket Street, 25.

Dunboe, 60.
Dundalk, 17.
Dundonald, 4, 10, 104-105, 106.
Dunmurry, 45.
Edenderry, 17.
Eglish (S), 76, 98.
Ennis, 15.
Enniscorthy, 17.
Fethard, 17.
Finvoy, 50.
Freeduff (see Creggan).
Garmany's Grove (S), 61.
Glascar (S), 50, 61, 80, 84, 92.
Greyabbey, 39, 49, 69.
Holywood, 3, 10, 74.
Killala, 17.
Killead, 3, 4, 5, 108.
Killinchy, 4, 75.
Killyleagh, 3, 4, 10, 45.

Kilwaughter (see Larne).
Kirkdonald (see Dundonald).
Larne, 4, 10, 80, 84, 85, 87, 91, 92, 96-97, 99, 103, 110, 111.
Legnacrieve (see Clontibret).
Letterkenny, 60.
Limavady (see Drumachose).
Limavady (S), 32.
Limerick, 15, 17.
Lisnaskea, 4.
Lylehill (S), 31, 32.
Maghera, 39,
Magherafelt, 80, 84, 93, 95-96.
Manorcunningham (see Ray).
Markethill (S), 32.
Moira, 75.
Moneymore, 73.
Mountrath, 17.
New Ross, 17.
Newtownards, 4, 10, 39, 75.
Oldstone (see Killead).
Portaferry, 10, 39.
Portarlington, 17, 22.
Rahul, 17.
Ramelton, 4.
Raphoe, 49.
Rathfriland, 39.
Rathfriland (S), 32.
Ray, 10, 91, 103.
Ray (S), 32.
Saintfield, 39.
Sandholes (S), 84.
Sligo, 17.
Stewartstown, 4.
Strabane, 49, 74.
Summerhill, 17.
Templepatrick, 4, 10, 31, 80, 84, 87-88, 91, 92, 94, 99, 104, 107-108.
Tipperary, 17.
Waterford, 17, 22.
Wexford, 17.
Wicklow, 17.


Abernethy, John (Antrim), 28.
Adair, Patrick (Cairncastle), 3, 13, 17, 67.
Aird, John (Chaplain), 10.
Alexander, James (Convoy), 76.
Allen, Dr. Robert (Kinghan Mission), 28.
Baird, John (Capel Street), 79.
Baird, John (Dervock), 10.
Barbour, Samuel (Rathfriland), 39.
Bell, Hugh (Eglish), 76.
Birch, T. Ledlie (Saintfield), 39, 72, 73.
Black, Robert (Derry), 40, 44.
Blair, Robert (Bangor), 3, 5, 6, 8, 11.
Boyce, Joseph (Wood Street), 15.
Boyle, John (Killyleagh), 3.
Brice, James (Killyleagh), 87.
Brown, N. M. (Drumachose), 60.
Bruce, William (First Belfast), 46.
Bryce, Edward (Broadisland), 3, 5.
Caldwell, Charles (Moneymore), 85.
Calvert, Henry (Oldstone), 3, 5.
Carlile, James (Mary's Abbey), 44-45.
Carson, Rev. J. T. (Bangor), 57.
Cobham, Thomas (Dundonald), 87.
Cooke, Henry (Killyleagh), 34, 40, 45-48, 49, 60.
Cox, Samuel (Dublin), 17.
Craghead, Robert (Donoughmore), 25, 74.
Crawford, Thomas (Donegore), 108, 109.
Crawford, William (Strabane), 42.
Cunningham, Hugh (Ray), 10.
Cunningham, Robert (Holywood), 3, 5, 6, 8.
Cunningham, Robert (Killomard), 3.
Davey, Principal J. E. (Professor), 34, 46, 57, 61.
Davidson, John (Cookstown), 75.
Denham, James (Great James' Street), 49.
Dickson, W. Steel (Portaferry), 38, 39.
Dobbin, William (Anaghlone), 60.
Dunbar, George (Larne), 4, 5.
Dyal, William (Stewartstown), 4.
Eakins, Rev. T. G. (Castlecaulfield), 54.
Edgar, John (Alfred Street), 53.
Edgar, Samuel (Ballynahinch), 44.
Elder, James (Finvoy), 50.
Elder, John (Aghadowey), 94.

Gibson, William (Ballybay), 57, 74.
Glasgow, James (Castledawson), 52.
Glendinning, James (Carnmoney), 4, 5.
Glendy, John (Maghera), 39.
Gordon, James (Comber), 14.
Goudy, Andrew (Ballywalter), 49.
Goudy, A. P. (Strabane), 49.
Goody, James (Clontibret), 75.
Graham, William (Dundonald), 52.
Greer, Thomas (Dunboe), 60.
Hamilton, James (Ballywalter), 4, 5, 7.
Hamilton, Robert (Killeshill), 4, 8, 11.
Hamilton, Thomas (York Street), 56.
Hanna, Samuel (Third Belfast), 45, 50, 51, 72, 73, 83.
Harrison, Joseph (Holywood), 72, 73, 74.
Henry, Alexander (Castlereagh), 72, 73.
Henry, P. S. (Armagh), 56.
Holmes, William (Strabane), 74.
Hook, Thomas (Francis Street), 25.
Hubbard,  (Carrickfergus), 4.
Johnston, James (Lisnaskea), 4.
Kelburn, Sinclair (Third Belfast), 38, 39, 72.
Kennedy, David (Newtownards), 4, 5, 14.
Kennedy, Thomas (Holywood), 74.
Ker, James (Ballymoney), 14.
Kerr, Alexander (Portadown), 52.
Killen, W. D. (Raphoe), 36, 49.
Kinnear, John (Letterkenny), 60.
Knox, Robert (Linenhall Street), 62.
Knox, Professor R. Buick (Ballydown), 6.
Knox, William (Dunboe), 74.
Latimer, W. T. (Eglish), 9, 36, 49, 55.
Lawson, Joseph (Lislooney), 75.
Livingstone, John (Killinchy), 4, 5, 8, 11.
Livingstone, William (Templepatrick), 31.
Lowthian, John (Dundonald), 4.
McBride, John (First Belfast), 87.
McClure, William (First Derry), 49.
McDowell, Benjamin (Mary's Abbey), 101
McEwan, George (Killinchy), 75.
McLeland, John (Coagh), 73.
McLelland, John (Newtownards), 4, 8, 11
Malcolm, James (Drumbo), 72, 73.
Malcolm, John (Killead), 87.
Marshall, W. F. (Castlerock), 41.
Masterton, Charles (Connor), 89.
Mayne, Thomas (Ballyroney), 32.

Montgomery, Henry (Dunmurry), 45-49.
Moore, Rev. Robert (Ringsend), 41.
Moore, William (Moneymore), 73.
Morrell, James (Ballybay), 47.
Moulder, John (Donaghmore), 4.
Murry, Thomas (Killyleagh), 4.
Neilson, Alexander (Ballyroney), 37.
Nelson, Isaac (Donegall Street), 57.
Ogalvie, William (Larne), 87.
O'Quin, Jeremy (Billy), 14.
Patton, Isaac (Lylehill), 31.
Pearson, A. F, Scott (Professor), 6.
Peebles, Hugh (Agherlow), 4, 5.
Peebles, Hugh (Dundonald), 10, 14.
Pont, Robert (Ramelton), 4, 5.
Porter, James (Greyabbey), 38, 39, 49.
Porter, J. L. (Professor). 56.
Porter, William (Limavady), 48.
Ramsey, Gilbert (Bangor), 11, 14.
Reid, Edward (Ramelton), 47.
Reid, J. Seaton (Clerk), 10, 28, 42, 51.
Ridge, John (Antrim), 4, 5.
Rodgers, John (Comber), 60.
Rodgers, John (Glascar), 50.
Row, David ( ), 4.
Row, Samuel ( ), 4, 5.
Scott, John (Chaplain), 10.
Simpson, James (Newtownards), 39, 72, 73.
Smith, Richard (Professor), 60.
Stephenson, S. M. (Greyabbey), 69.
Stewart, Andrew (Donegore), 4.
Stewart, Dr. David (Cregagh), 10, 32, 61.
Stirling, Thomas (Dervock), 74.
Stitt, William (Dungannon), 73.
Stuart, James (Dundonald), 106.
Thomson, Humphrey (Ballybay), 94, 99.
Trotter, David (Moira), 75.
Watson, David (Killeavy), 4.
Watson, Samuel (Killinchy), 75.
Welsh, Josias (Templepatrick), 4, 5.
Wilson, James (Magherafelt), 95-96.
Wilson, Thomas (Ballyclare), 105.
Wilson, William (Moywater), 85.
Wilson, William (Magherafelt), 73.