Compiled by
Vicar of the Union. 1892

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[Contributed by the Minister, the Rev. Robert M`Bride, B.A.]

ALMOST three decades of the present century had come and gone ere the congregation of Dundrod had a local habitation and a name. During the first quarter of a century, the Presbyterian residents in Dundrod and surrounding district were under the necessity of travelling to Crumlin, Killead, and Templepatrick to enjoy the ordinances of the Gospel as dispensed by Presbyterian pastors.

The idea of getting organised into a separate and independant congregation, and of erecting a church in their own immediate neighbourhood, had been entertained for some time, but did not find practical expression till the year 1826, during the summer of which a public meeting was held in the Ballyhill school-house to consider the advisability and feasibility of erecting a place of worship. The meeting was large and respectable. The proposal to build was adopted with much enthusiasm. By a large majority, Upton's Fort, about a furlong to the south-east of Dundrod village, was selected as the site of the new Meeting-house, the most noble the Marquis of Hertford generously granting an acre of land for that purpose. In a few weeks a sum of �300 was subscribed toward the building fund. On the 5th of February, 1827, the newly-organised congregation was received under the care of the Presbytery of Templepatrick in connexion with the general Presbytery of Templepatrick. On the 17th June of the same year the foundation stone was laid by John M'Cance, Esq., Suffolk, Dunmurry. The building operations were conducted with commendable zeal, for "the people had a mind to work." On the 31st August, 1828, the Rev. Henry Cooke, Killyleagh, preached the opening sermon, where upwards of �80 were laid on the collecting plates. The Rev. William Loughridge was unanimously chosen to be their first minster, and was ordained on the 10th March, 1829. On the 19th of July, of the same year, the first session was constituted by the ordination to the office of ruling elder, of Messrs. James Suffern. James Moore, John Mairs, F. M. Kennedy, and John Potts, session clerk. The Rev. Mr. Loughridge resigned his charge of the congregation in July, 1838, and was succeeded by the Rev. William Magill, who was ordained in March, 1840. Mr. Magill laboured faithfully for a period of forty years, during which he effected many reforms. The present school-room owes its existence to him. When he was necessitated, through failing health, to resign the active duties of the ministry, the congregation unanimously chose the Rev. John Clarke, M.A., to be his assistant and successor. Mr. Clarke was ordained on May 16th, 1876, and after labouring with much acceptance for three years, resigned his pastorate on 26th June, 1879, having received and accepted a call to the congregation of Mossgreen, in connexion with the Church of Scotland. He was succeeded in Dundrod by the Rev. John M'Connell, M.A., who was installed as minister in full charge, on 22nd June, 1880. The Rev. William Magill had gone to his rest and reward on the 11th March previous. During his three and a half years' pastorate Mr. M'Connell laboured with marked success, and succeeded in building the present manse at a cost of nearly �1,000, which he left behind him as a monument of his zeal and energy. His health giving way, he left for the Australian colonies. The choice of the congregation then fell on the Rev. R. M'Bride, B.A., minister of the congregation of 2nd Monaghan, who was duly installed on the 17th April, 1884. During the present pastorate various improvements have been effected upon the church property. The church has been subjected to a thorough internal renovation, at a cost of over �800, which has been paid. During the present year, the committee has expended over �40 in draining the graveyard, and are engaged in raising �220 to wipe out a debt incurred in connexion with the erection of the manse. The present session consists of four ruling elders--Messrs. Alexander Officer, George M`Clure, William J. M`Knight, and William Higginson, session clerk. The National School-room was built in 1846-47, and is vested in the Commissioners of National Education. At present there are 75 children on the rolls, boys 41, girls 34. There are 197 families and 252 communicants in connexion with the congregation. During the past year they contributed to the ordinary schemes of the Church �318 55. 2d.

NOTE.�From Reeves' Antiquities we learn that there was a church at Dundrod in A.D. 1306. The entry in the record of the taxation macle in the reign of Edward I., in the year 1306, called "Decim Saladin," or " tax of one-tenth of the income for the crusade against Saladin," runs thus:�" The church of Karryn, with the chapel of Kiltrodan...Tenth 16s." In his note on this the eminent archologist says :�" K�ltrodan�now Dundrod, in the parish of Tullyrusk. In 1621 it was called Bally-Kiltrodan." In Petty's map of the county of Antrim, it is marked " Doon-Killtrodan, Dun.Kiltrod," the transition name from the last mentioned to that now in use appears on a map drawn in 1729. There are no traces of either a chapel or burial ground existing in the town land.- Reeves' Antiquities                 C. W.  


By the courtesy of the Rev. George Hill, the kindly and accomplished author, to whom we are indebted for the Montgomery Manuscripts, &c., the writer is able to give some slight information regarding Presbyterianism in Camlin in the 18th century. Previous to 1720 there was no Presbyterian place of worship in the village of Crumlin. There was a meeting-house in Ballydonaghy, a townland in the parish of Glenavy Union, in the upper corner of the field, on the other side of the public road, opposite the mount, close to where Mr. Francis Barnes resides, the last minister of it being the Rev. David Airth, who, being badly supported, went to Scotland in 1689. The Presbyterians of Kilmakevitt, at the Largey, Lower Killead, about the same time lost their minister, the Rev. John Malcolm, who went to Dunmurry. About the year 1720, these two fragments agreed to unite and build a house of worship at Crumlin, which was completed in 1721. The first minister of the united sections was the Rev. Thomas Crawford (for further information of whom, see "Account of Crumlin"), whose ministry lasted for 58 years. The next was the Rev. Nathaniel Alexander, who also kept the famous Crumlin Academy (see "Crumlin "). During his ministry he and his congregation attached themselves to the Remonstrant Synod, and became Unitarian. Under his pastorate the old meeting-house, which was 6o feet long by 24 feet wide, with an aisle and three galleries, accommodating 500 persons, was pulled down, and the present fine structure erected about 1834. At his death the Rev. George Hill, happily still alive, became minister. His successors have been the Revs. Francis M'Cammond, John Jennings, Robert Cleland, J. Lewin, and J. Hall, B.A., the present minister.

[Contributed by the Rev. J. .A. Canning, LL.B.]

THE connection between Crumlin Presbyterians and the General Assembly was established in the year 1838, when, under its regime, fourteen families formed themselves into a congregation, and presented a call to the Rev. A. C. Canning, a licentiate of the Derry Presbytery. On the 13th of October of that year he was ordained in a circular group of trees still standing outside the village. The exertion of the young clergyman was then put forth to develop his small nucleus of a congregation, and to erect a church. An appeal was made to the lord of the soil, the Honourable General Pakenham, for a building site, and he, with the catholicity of spirit and practical generosity which have ever characterised his family, cheerfully granted the request, and gave as freehold the ground required, and in all the early struggles of the infant church uniformly proved himself the congregation's friend and liberal supporter. Through the exertion of the minister and congregation, and the hearty response made by their own and the sister churches, in the year 1839 the present building was opened for public worship by the Rev. James Morgan, D.D., of Fisherwick Place Church, Belfast. In the church records the following names appear as members of the first session :�" William Beattie, Robert Macauley, J. Ballantine, John Dickson, and Thomas English.' Led by "the Kindly Light" of the Church's Great Head, cheered and strengthened by the good wishes and generous aid of many friends outside their own " communion," the zealous pastor and his devoted people soon found that "their lines had fallen in pleasant places," and they "had a goodly heritage." The germ of orthodox Presbyterianism continued to grow, and now, after the lapse of 50 years, with many an ebb and flood in its short history, there are in connexion with the congregation almost a hundred families. Having served that Master who had led him through many difficulties, and had crowned his efforts with success, Mr. Canning, after a faithful and fruitful ministry of fifty-one years, retired from the active duties of the pastorate, and was succeeded by his son, the Rev. J. A. Canning, who continues to work in a portion of the vine-yard breathed upon by the kindly and inspiriting influence of zealous co-operation in the congregation, and cordial sympathy on the part of the other religious communities.


IN 1747, on the invitation of Williams, the first of Wesley's preachers, John Wesley himself came to Ireland, and preached in St. Mary's, Dublin. Thus Methodism began in Ireland. When it gained a footing in Glenavy is uncertain, but the old preaching house, now used for a Sunday-school, bears date 1826. Previous to the incumbency of the Rev. Edward Johnson-Smythe, only a morning service was held in the Parish Church. In the evening a service was held by the Methodists in their chapel at five o'clock. Prior to the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland, in 1870, they were Primitive or Church Methodists. In 1878 they elected to join the Wesleyan Society. A comfortable residence for their minister, called the Manse, was purchased in 1885, and during the present year an extremely neat building has been erected as a house of worship, at a cost of �1,500, seating 140 persons. It was opened for public worship on June 18. The Glenavy Methodists are most generous in their support of Missions, especially the Home Mission. According to the census of 1891 the number of Methodists were :�Glenavy 106 ; Camlin, 32 ; Tullyrusk, 4 : total in the Union, 142

The minister in charge is manager of Legateriffe National School. The number of Sunday-school children on the rolls of their three schools is 190, but the larger proportion of these cannot be Methodists, seeing that the total number of Methodists in the large parishes of Glenavy Union, Ballinderry, and Killead amounts only, all told, to 279. In these parishes the numbers of the Church of Ireland are 2,684 ; of Presbyterians, 985 ; of Roman Catholics, 2,278. Service is held in the Methodist chapel at 11a.m. and 6p.m. on Sundays, and at 7p.m. on Wednesday evenings. The minister in charge at present is the Rev. W. J. Christie.

1st PERIOD�CELTIC�431 to 1151 A.D.

DURING this period, from St. Patrick's time, the Church was monastic in the Celtic sense, which differs entirely from the monasteries started at Millifont, near Drogheda, when Rome got a foothold. Irish monasteries were Christian clans, the only towns they had, presided over by a Coarb or Abbot (from Abba, Father), who, unless a bishop himself, kept one or more bishops for discharging the duties of ordination and confirmation. Clergy and Christian families, farmers and other tradesmen, all lived together in the monastery, bound by no ties of poverty or obedience, like the Cistertians of Millifont. The Church was independent of Rome. This is certain from Rome's repeated inveighing against her because she differed on the mode of computing Easter ; on the way of shaving the head (Acts xxi. 24-26) ; on the mode of ordination, one bishop sufficing in the Irish Church, while three were required in the Romish ; on the toleration of married clergy ; on baptism ; on Confession, which was public ; and on Ritual and Liturgy. During this period the Irish Church was fired with missionary zeal, and was the School of the West and the Isle of Saints.

2nd PERIOD�CELTIC-ROMAN�1151 to 1534 A.1).

CONTACT with England meant contact with Rome, and accordingly we find Roman methods gaining ground about 1140. Malachi, Bishop of Connor, desired to see fewer bishops and have them Diocesan, i.e., with defined territories, and under Papal control. At Skerries, in 1148, he gathered a small Synod, at which it was agreed to ask for "Palls" from Rome, such as was sent this year to Archbishop Vaughan. The Synod of Kells in, 1151, confirmed this, but asked for four " Palls." At length the fetters were riveted by Henry II.'s conquest, and in 1172 at the Synod of Cashel, where a Papal Legate presided, the Irish Church was brought into line with the English, and wore the Roman costume.


THE Reformation made slow progress in Ireland owing to the people's ignorance, and to the folly of refusing to teach them in the tongue they loved. The bishops conformed, though many of them at heart were Romish, and in Mary's reign gladly went back to the Papal allegiance. When Elizabeth became Queen, the Irish Church again put off the Roman costume, and in the time of James I. there was only one titular bishop of Roman orders in all Ireland. Then, all hope of Ireland becoming Roman, through England's King reverting to Popery, being gone, the Italian Mission began in earnest ; the country was flooded with priests having foreign orders, educated on the Continent, and with wandering monks, who, teaching in the Irish language, won the people by stirring up national animosity, declaring the Reformed Church was English in origin. Further religious complications ensued by the advent of the Presbyterians as a distinct body of Christians in 1611. Then Cromwell came, filling the churches with Dissenting Ministers from 1654 to 1666. When James II. reigned, Rome once more asserted herself. Bishoprics in the Church were kept vacant, and Romish Sees endowed. The Revolution of 1688 changed the aspect of affairs, and the Reformed Church was again restored. Then, in 1747, Methodism began, and finally in 1800, at the Union, the Church was amalgamated with that of England under the title "The United Church of England and Ireland." This lasted till 1870, when the Irish Church Act was passed; the Church, disestablished and disendowed, got back her simple title "The Church of Ireland"; and, as she did in the early period of her history, welcomed the laity back to take deliberations in her councils.


CRUMLIN STREETCRUMLIN, a post town and telegraph station, is in the Parish of Camlin. It is situated on the river Camlin, and is a Railway Station on the branch line of the Great Northern Railway from Lisburn to Antrim. It is a dispensary district, the medical officer in charge of which is Dr. Alester. It consists of one long, wide street, running east and west, from which, a little more than mid-way, branches another, running north, in the direction of Antrim. Crumlin has passed through many phases of prosperity and depression. In 1760, it was a mere hamlet, consisting of a public-house and a smith's forge. When, in 1765, Rowley Heyland, Esq., built the flour mills at Glenoak, now the factory of the Ulster Woollen Co., Ltd., Crumlin began to prosper, so that by the year 1809, it contained 89 inhabited and 3 uninhabited houses, with a population of 430 persons. By the year 1836, under the fostering care of the Messrs. Macauley, it had grown to 128 houses and 641 inhabitants. After the Macauleys left, in 1849, it had a very varying prosperity, and by the census of 1891 it contained 85 inhabited houses with a population of 344 persons, of whom 165 were males and 179 females. The success of the town seems to have been always in proportion to the condition of the mills, and it is hoped that a new era of prosperity will set in, now that the factory is established on a firm footing. The mills are not actually in the Parish of Camlin, but in Killead Parish, just across the river Camlin, which divides the two parishes. The mills built in 1765 were the first erected in the North of Ireland, The Government considered them of so much importance that they erected very extensive warehouses, and encouraged by every means the growth of wheat. After Mr. Heyland, the Messrs. Macauley & Son held the Crumlin Mills, and the quantity of grain annually consumed by them was on the average 3,000 tons of wheat and 3,000 tons of oats. A flax mill was also started by the Messrs. Macauley, which is now in the possession of Mr. Christie. After the Messrs. Macauley left in 1849, Mr. Haddock held them from 1856 to 1860, when Mr. James Hunter entered into possession, but failed in 1870. Mr. Rhodes entered as tenant in 1872, the premises being burned down in 1884. Then, in 1886, the Ulster Woollen Co., Ltd., Mr. Thomas T. Scott, Managing Director, started a factory, which is now in full operation, for the manufacturing of Tweeds, Serges, Friezes, &c., fitted up with all the latest improvements in Dyeing, Carding, Spinning, Weaving, and Finishing. It contains 26 looms, but more are being added. The spinning power is 1,200 spindles, the carding power is 3 sets of machines, and the driving power is steam engine and Hercules turbine. Its trade mark is the "Irish Round Tower," and the name of the tweeds manufactured is " Lough Neagh Tweeds." -The company do everything within themselves, from the raw material to the finished cloth.

Crumlin possessed in 1810 an excellent classical academy for boarders and day scholars. The Rev. Nathaniel Alexander, Presbyterian minister, assisted by a staff of ushers, carried it on in the fine house occupied at present by Mrs. Whitfield. The Rev. E. Cupples states that it was managed with great care and ability. At the same time Mr. Daniel M`Allister taught a classical school in Glenavy, and, by these two schools, a liberal education was afforded to the sons of the gentry and farmers. Ballytromery, the townland on which Crumlin is mainly built, has the honour of giving to the world three famous men, the sons of the Rev. Thomas Crawford, who was for 58 years Presbyterian minister in Crumlin. The wife of this gentleman, ne� Anne M'Cay, was sister to Miss Elizabeth Hamilton, an authoress of repute. The eldest son, Rev. William Crawford, was a man of great learning, one of whose books was so marked by ability, that it was supplied to the students of Oxford as an antidote to the famous letters of Earl Chesterfield. He died in 1801, being Presbyterian minister in Holywood at the time. John Crawford, the second son, a surgeon in the service of the East India Company, owes his fame to the introduction of mercury for medical purposes, especially for liver complaint, and he describes in an essay, dedicated to Sir George Colebrooke, in 1769, the success of his practice. He died at Baltimore, America, in 1813. The third son, Adair Crawford, was a physician, who practised in London, and was the most famous of the three brothers. His works attracted the attention of philosophers all over the Continent, especially his Treatise on Animal Heat. This ingenious, learned, and amiable man, as the Rev. Mr. Cupples describes him, died of a consumption, occasioned by intense application to his literary and professional pursuits, at Leamington, in Hampshire, in the year 1795. Close by Crumlin is Glendarragh, once the seat of Colonel Heyland, and now the beautiful cottage residence of Lieut.-Col. Charles M'Clintock, J.P., the grounds of which are beautifully laid out, the glen with its waterfall being most picturesque. Crumlin possesses two places of worship. The older one, dating from 1720, belongs to the Unitarian Church, and is under the charge of the Rev. James Hall, B.A. ; the new one, which is in connexion with the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, has a tower and bell, and is under the pastorate of the Rev. John Canning, LL.B., T.C.D. His father, the Rev. Alexander C. Canning, who is still alive, and for over 50 years ministered with great acceptance, has received the respect of all who know him, and now, at a ripe old age, waits in readiness to say "Adsum," when the voice of the Master he loves calls him home. A service in connexion with the Church of Ireland is held on Sunday afternoons at 4-30 p.m. in the Court-house. Crumlin possesses five public-houses, two of them, those of Mr. Henry Gillen and Mr. Philip Corken, being of a hotel character. Large numbers of people from Belfast and Lisburn drive here in the summer, and stop on their way to Langford Lodge, the beautiful seat of the Rev. Arthur H. Pakenham, J.P., who kindly throws open his grounds to holiday parties. The police barracks, lately built, are in the main street, and are in charge of Sergeant M'Court. The Petty Sessions are held once a month, on the last Monday, and the Clerk to the Magistrates is Mr. Joseph English, who also is Clerk to the Board of Conservators of Fisheries, Coleraine District, and through whose energy the town has been lighted with oil lamps. Some of the houses in Crumlin present a very fine appearance, that occupied by Mr. Joseph English being the best, but Dr. Hume's, Mrs. Whitfield's, Mr. Edward Johnston's, and Mr. Berryhill's are most comfortable residences. There are two schools, one under Unitarian management, of which Miss Kinnear is teacher, and one belonging to the Rev. A. H. Pakenham, Mr. Robert Stewart being the master. The station master is Mr. William Beattie, and the post-mistress, who is about to retire, is Miss Campbell. A fair is held on the first Monday in the month, and a market on the Wednesday in every week. For the accommodation of farmers and dealers, the Ulster Banking Company have an office at Mr. Gillen's on fair and market days. Crumlin is the property of the Rev. A. H. Pakenham, J.P., who is justly regarded as one of the best of landlords, and most kind to the poor, going often himself to carry delicacies to them when unwell. He is seconded in this by his agent, Lieut.-Col. Charles M'Clintock, J.P., and by the sub-agent, Mr. Warren Mountgarrett. The town has lately been much improved by the building of comfortable slated houses for the working class by Mr. Philip Corken and Mr. Gillen. The vicinity has many comfortable and, in some cases, handsome residences; such as Ben Neagh, belonging to Mr. Jonathan Peel; Fruitvale, to Mr. Nelson; Cherry Valley, to Mr. M`Connell, Land Commissioner; Glenfield, to Mr. J. White; Beechvale, to Mr. Gresham; Bellgrove, to Mr. J. Bullick; Springfield, to Mr. Bryans ; besides the residences of Messrs. F. Barnes, The Mount: R. Willis, T. Sherlock, Carlisle Arnold, M. Whiteside, and H. Gililand ; and Gobrana House, the seat of Captain Dowglass, J.P.

Adjacent to Crumlin is Cidercourt, where the Messrs. Rea have a fine saw-mill, which gives good employment to a number of hands.


CREW was named in ancient times Craebh-tulcha, which means "the spreading tree of the hill." It was so called from a sacred tree, under which the Kings of Ulidia were crowned. The great stone on which the ceremony was performed is still there, though not in its original position. At a few perches distant was a rath, which was probably the site of the royal residence. What a hallowed spot Crew Hill is from its ancient memories. Whoever now-a-days thinks that this is a spot which continually sounded to the tramp of armed men, and that here many a fierce battle was fought, for the enemies of the Ulidians always directed their hostility against the Crew. One battle in 1003 was specially memorable, when the Kinel-Owen utterly routed the Ulidians, the fight continuing as far as Drumbo in County Down. Ardghair was King of Ulidia, and his two sons were slain, as was also Aedh O'Neill, heir apparent to the sovereignity of Ireland, who was only 20 years of age. Brian Boru, at that time acknowledged by most of the Septs as Sovereign, came to the North in 1005, and, accepted by the Ulidians, but not by the Kinel-Owen, he encamped on Crew Hill. This is the description, given by The War of Me Gaedhil, of the reception accorded Brian and his Munster men on Crew Hill : "Brian was then at Craebh-Tulcha, and the Ulidians with him, getting provisions there. They supplied him there with 1,200 beeves, 1,200 hogs, and 1,200 wethers ; and Brian bestowed 1,200 horses upon them, besides gold and silver and clothing."

In 1099 the Kinel-Owen, led by Donnell O'Loughlin, cut down the sacred tree. We read, in 1099, "an army was led by Domhnall Ua Lochlain and the Clan Neill across Toome into Ulidia. The Ulidians were encamped at Craeb-Tulcha (Crew Hill)." Both the cavalries engage. The Ulidian cavalry was routed and O'Hafferin slain in the conflict. After this the Ulidians left the camp, and the Clanna Neill burned it and cut down (the tree called) Craebh Tulcha. Twelve years after, in 1111, the Ulidians retaliated and avenged the insult offered to their honour on Crew Hill by defeating the Kinel-Owen at Tullahoge (in Co. Tyrone, above Dungannon), and cut down their secred trees. Once again, in 1148, Murtough MacLoughlin, King of the Kinel-Owen, dethroned Cunladh O'Donolevy, King of Ulidia, but as soon as the Kinel-Owen left, Cunladh was restored, though soon expelled by the Ulidians themselves. This is the last mention made of Crew in the known histories of the country. But a curious entry in the diary of a wandering ministrel proves Crew and Tullyrusk were residences of great chiefs who always kept bards. It runs thus :-
" Neidhe landed from Scotland at Rind Roiss (Kilroot) and from this went over ..... Tulach Rusc, and Craibh Telcha ...... to Emhain," or the Navan Ring Fort in Armagh.


THIS place, so named on account of a four-score acre field, lies near Knockcairn, and possesses one of the finest country schools in the parish. Before being built, the school was held in a building at the Ligger Bridge, on the road to Crumlin, the walls of which were pulled down about two years ago. The foundation stone of Fourscore was laid by Fortescue Gregg, Esq., on July 12, 1837. The Orangemen attended in great numbers, George Lyons, Master of Lodge 340, Thomas Green, Robert Thompson, John Wickliffe, Wm. John Smyth, David Gray, and Thomas Wheeler being among the number. It was not opened till 1840, owing to Mr. Gregg's death. The school-room and teacher's residence were, however, completed by subscription. Mr. William Scott, uncle of the present Mr.William Scott, of Fourscore, was the first teacher. It was then under the Church Education Society, but the Rev. Ross Jebb, Vicar, placed it under the National Board. When the Rev. Edward Johnson-Smyth came to the parish, in 1852, he again put it under the Church Education Society; but, in 1885, it was again put in connexion with the Board by the present vicar, after many improvements, to which the people generously subscribed. The teachers have been Messrs. W. Scott, William Boston, John M'Farland, W. Crawford Bradshaw, and now Mr. James Farr occupies that post. Near Fourscore lives Mr. John Wickliffe, who, though in his 86th year, never misses attending the parish church and the meetings of the select vestry. His wife, who is a year older, is still both chatty and cheerful.


This lake, the largest in Great Britain, washes for the space of six miles the united parishes. It is twenty English miles in length, and nearly fifteen miles in breadth, covering a space of 97,775 acres. Irish historians always tell the story that it burst out in the reign of Lugaidh Rhiaberg, and was called Lion-Mhuine. This name appears to have the same meaning as that by which it is now known, and both to have originated in a supposed healing quality possessed by the lake ; for Lion signifies a lough, and Mhuine, an ulcer. Attempts were made to call it by other names, such as Lough Sydney and Lough Chichester ; but the old, though less refined name, defeated every effort to supplant it. It used to be thought that the Lough had two marvellous properties : a power of healing diseases, and also of petrifying wood. Long ago at fairs the cry was common--

" Lough Neagh Hones, Lough Neagh Hones,
Put in sticks, and brought out stones."

Neither of these powers can be claimed by the lough. Analysis of the water has shewn it possesses no medicinal property ; and the fact that petrifactions of a similar nature are found in the neighbourhood, far from the lake, shews that it cannot claim the other property. Lough Neagh has been frozen over several times, and on one occasion, in 1814, such was the intensity of the frost, that Colonel Heyland performed the hazardous expedition of riding his horse from Crumlin Water-foot to Ram's Island; and the singular novelty was seen of a drag chase on the ice, round the island, with Mr. Stafford Whittle's pack of harriers. Colonel Heyland also rode round Lough Neagh in the year 1804, for a wager ; a ride which he performed in less than five hours, the distance covered being 8o miles, 6 furlongs. In May, 1604, Sir Arthur Chichester received a grant of the fisheries of Lough Neagh, and was appointed Admiral, with full power to dispose of all shipping thereon. From this we at once infer that the waters of the Lough were often the scene of naval encounters. In 838 A.D., the Danes had a fleet upon it, who were expelled by Donell O'Neill. In 1030 a naval fight took place between the men of Tyrone and of Antrim. In 1345 the lords of Tyrone and Clandeboye had a fierce encounter, the latter being victorious. In the rebellion of 1641, the rebels made it the scene of many battles, and to put them down, Sir John Clotworthy, first Lord Massereene, had a fleet at command capable of transporting 1,000 soldiers. At Femore, on the east, separated by a narrow isthmus, is Lough Beg, or Portmore, covering 625 acres. In 1740, Mr. Dobbs, agent to Lord Conway, tried to drain it into Lough Neagh. For this purpose he erected a wind-mill at the narrowest part of the isthmus, where the Tunny Bridge now stands. The wind mill, acting upon buckets, did indeed empty the lake, but the water by some inlet flowed back again. About this attempt, according to J. Moore Johnston's Medley, 1803, the people sang

" Squire Dobbs was ingenious,
He framed a windmill,
To drain the crystal fountain,
where water runs still."

This Lough Beg, or Portmore, is specially interesting, because on Sally Island in it, Bishop Jeremy Taylor composed some of his best works. A beautiful copy of Jeremy Taylor's sermons, dated and printed 1673, is in the possession of S. Walkington, Esq , Oakland, Ballinderry. Jeremy Taylor's Ductor Dubitantium was probably written here, for the preface is dated from his study in Portmore, in Killultagh, on the banks of Lough Beg. The one half of Portmore, containing Sally Island, is in the parish of Ballinderry, of which the Rev. Canon Sayers is Rector ; and Ballinderry contains the church, now a mortuary chapel, in which Jeremy Taylor preached.


IN Lough Neagh, about one mile distant from the Glenavy shore, is a small island, called Ram's Island, containing about 23 acres of ground. It onceRound Tower belonged, by a prescriptive title, to an old fisherman, by name David M`Areavy; he sold it for one hundred guineas to Mr. Conway M`Neice, in 1804; by him it was exchanged for a small farm to Mr. Whittle ; it was next sold by him to Lord O'Neill, and is now the property of the Rev. A. H. Pakenham, J.P., of Langford Lodge, who keeps a caretaker, Robert Cardwell, upon it. It is much frequented by summer visitors, at whose services the kind owner places the Swiss cottage which is kept for the purpose. But Ram's Island is chiefly interesting for the round tower it possesses. It is 43 feet high, and 30 feet 5 inches in circumference, the walls being 2 feet 8 inches in thickness. The door faces the south-west, and the tower is divided into three stories; the first is 14 feet 4 inches from the surface, and contains the door ; in the second is a window facing the south-east ; and in the third is a window facing the north, about 3 feet high and 1 feet broad. About the year 1814, the person living on the island noticed a hollow sound as he entered, and this induced him to dig below the surface, and at a depth of 5 feet he found some human bones and coffin boards. The Rev. E. Cupples says that a skeleton was discovered near the tower, and bones and skulls in many parts of the island. These indicate that it was once, a cemetery, and therefore that the round tower was part of a church building. He also says that several coins were dug up ; a silver one, apparently of the time of Edward I., being now in the possession of Colonel Heyland. Several brass pins with knobs, and pointed, were also found in 1806. They are similar to those used by the monks on the Continent for fastening their cloaks, and as they were found in a spot which had evidently once been a cemetery, it is natural to conclude they belonged to the clergy attached to the building connected with the Round Tower. Bishop Reeves, in Ecclesiastical Antiquities, page 47, says that in the taxation of the United Dioceses, in 1306 A.D., the entry runs�"The Church of Lennewy, with the chapel 10s.�Tenth, 12d." In a foot-note he says, " the chapel here is probably Ram's Island. In Speed's Map of Ulster, and in Bleau's Geography it is called, "Enis Garden:" and is accompained by the symbol of a church and circular tower. He also says that, not a century ago (writing A.D. 1846) the island was described as "having the ruins of a church, with a round tower."�(Barton's lectures on Lough Neagh).

When Mr. and Mrs. Hall visited Glenavy, during the preparation of their work on " Ireland," they often heard in the neighbourhood a song descriptive of the beauty of the Island, the refrain of which ran

" It's pretty to be in Ballinderry,
It's pretty to be in Aghalee,
But prettiest of all in bonny Ram's Island,
Sitting under the trysting tree.
Och hone ! Och hone !

This song was a year or two ago revived and much sung in London drawing-rooms. The round tower on the island, reflected in the water, may have much to do with the legend enshrined in Moore's lovely poem

" On Lough Neagh's banks, where the fisherman strays,
When the clear, cold eve's declining,
He sees the round towers of other days
In the waves beneath him shining."


BEFORE the study of Irish arch�ology became scientific, much speculation was rife as to the meaning and purpose of these. Some thought the Danes built them, others the Phnicians, and that they were used as fire-temples, observatories, watch towers, belfries. Dr. Petrie shews they are Christian in origin, and were used both as belfries and watch towers. In 1020, we first read of "the Bell-house " in the Annals of the Four Masters. Their origin was due to the Danish incursions, and Mr. Olden points out that the situation of the towers, along the coast and in places most accessible to the enemy, shews that those first attacked were the first to resort to this means of defence. The earliest is said to have been erected in 965, and it is clear that such a tower, with its several chambers, extreme height, and little elevated doorway, many feet above the ground, placed it beyond the reach of the destroyer. When the monastery near would be in flames, it, with its precious store of manuscripts, bells, and infirm people, would be safe.


THE Parish once abounded with these. In the Rev. E. Cupples' time there were three ancient tumuli and thirty-seven raths. Half a mile above Dundrod there were three in one chain, close by five more, and below it five more in one line. It is to be regretted that these venerable remains are fast disappearing. At Pitmave vas an ancient cemetery, called the Giant's Grave. In 1814, it was an enclosed vault, composed of large square stones, being about 35 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 2 feet deep. In 1774 a land surveyor to to the Earl of Hertford, named Skelton, had it opened and found in it human bones of gigantic size. These bones when touched crumbled to dust. At the head of this ancient tumulus, or cemetery, stood a venerable thorn, and two other vaults of smaller dimensions were on each side. At Crew is a huge stone said to be that on which the ancient Kings of Ulster were crowned.


FEMORE, which means the great pound or park, contains over 1,400 acres, and was once covered with forest trees.
Situated on the banks of Lough Neagh, it was held as a park by the Lords Conway, and was stored with deer and game. Lord Conway built a handsome shooting lodge, which is now the residence of Mr. Robert Hebb. The southern part is called the Hogg, or little deer park. All traces, save the walls, of its former use have disappeared, and the forests with the deer are things of the past. In the Hogg grew a wonderful Oak, called the Royal Oak from its immense size, which was blown down on the windy Saturday of 1742. It was 42 feet in circumference, and when sold realised the extraordinary sum of �121 10s. It was said to be 1,400 years old. The residences of Mr. W. Fitzgerald, Mrs. Gregory, Mrs. MacDonald, are very handsome, and those of Mr. Creany, Mr. Edward Johnston, Mr. W. Gregory, and Mr. George Patterson, are most comfortable.


KNOCKCAIRN, now the property of Mr. Potts, was the seat of a large-hearted family, the Greggs, who were descended from the MacGregors of Antrim and the M`Quillans of Dunluce. The last resident was Fortescue Gregg, Esq., who succeeded his uncle William. The father of Fortescue was a member of the Irish Parliament, held office therein, and retained his pension of �876 a year till his death. He resided in Belfast. A son of Fortescue's is the Rev. J. N. Gregg, M.A., of Burnham, Somerset. Knockcairn has its story. In the days of James I., a chieftain called Dunn resided in the castle. He married one of the Uptons of Templepatrick, a Protestant. Failing to compel her to join the Church of Rome, he resolved to devote her to destruction. He enclosed her and her children in the mansion, and set fire to it. To enjoy the sight, he stood on a hill 80 perches off, and sitting down, with cool barbarity he said, " I take pleasure in their cries "; and that hill was called the Hill of Pleasure. The Uptons resolved to punish him, and collecting their forces posted themselves on, " Bell's Hill." Dunn, who had many allies, presented such a bold front, that the Uptons retreated to a hill beyond Dundrod, and from this advantageous position attacked him, and compelled him to fly to Dundrod. The route he took is called " Dunn's race," and the spot where the meeting-house now stands, " Upton's Fort." Tradition ends here, and leaves us in the dark as to the end of the brutal Dunn.